हिंदी साहित्य: पेन ड्राइव कोर्स
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International Relations

Japan’s New Prime Minister

  • 17 Sep 2020
  • 5 min read

Why in News

Japan recently elected Yoshihide Suga as its new Prime Minister. He belongs to the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) of Japan.

Key Points

  • Key Challenges Ahead: The new PM has to battle with the Covid-19 pandemic, rebuild the economy and also plan the Olympics scheduled to take place in Tokyo in 2021.
  • Political System of Japan :
    • Japan has a multi-party, bicameral, parliamentary, representative democratic constitutional monarchy.
    • Constitution: It has a unitary model with supremacy of constitution.
      • The Constitution of Japan is the fundamental law of Japan, enacted on 3rd May 1947.
      • It is one of the very few democratic constitutions in the world having fundamental duties, apart from India.
    • Government: The Government of Japan consists of a legislature, executive and judiciary.
      • The Emperor is the Head of State and the Prime Minister is the Head of Government and the Head of the Cabinet (executive).
      • The Emperor holds nominal ceremonial authority. For e.g. The legislature is known as the National Diet. Its members are directly elected by the people.
      • The Diet has two houses- upper House of Representatives and lower House of Councillors.
      • The Prime minister is designated by the National Diet but only the Emperor has the authority to appoint the Prime Minister.
    • Feature Borrowed in Indian Constitution: The Indian Constitution derives its “Procedure established by Law” component from the Japanese constitution.
      • The expression occurs in Article 21 (Right to Life and Personal Liberty).
      • It means that law duly enacted by the legislature or the concerned body is valid only if the correct procedure has been followed to the letter.
      • Hence, the validity of a law that has prescribed a procedure cannot be questioned on the ground that the law is unreasonable, unfair or unjust.
      • It is different from the expression ‘due process of law’ contained in the American Constitution, which not only checks if there is a law to deprive the life and personal liberty of a person but also ensures that the law is made fair and just.
      • With the Supreme Court pronouncement of “due process of Law “in the Maneka Gandhi case (1978), the court asserted the principle of reasonableness while deciding a case. It now means that the procedure must satisfy certain requisites in the sense of being fair and reasonable. The procedure cannot be arbitrary, unfair or unreasonable.
  • Recent Developments in India-Japan Relations
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