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Global Wind Report 2022

  • 13 Apr 2022
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: Global Wind Report for 2022, Global Wind Energy Council.

For Mains: Global Wind Report for 2022, India's renewables energy targets, challenges and initiatives taken to achieve it.

Why in News?

Recently, the Global Wind Report for 2022 was published by the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC).

  • GWEC was established in 2005 to provide a credible and representative forum for the entire wind energy sector at an international level.

What are the Key Highlights of the Report?

  • Wind Energy Installations Must Quadruple Every Year:
    • Wind energy installations every year across the world must quadruple from the 94 GW (Gigawatt) installed in 2021 within this decade to meet the global climate targets.
      • Without the necessary amplification, restricting global warming over pre-industrial levels to 1.5 degrees Celsius — a target set by the Paris Agreement — and achieving Net Zero emissions by 2050 may become difficult.
  • Capacity Installed in 2021:
    • New installations of 93.6 GW in 2021 brought global cumulative wind energy capacity to 837 GW, a Year-on-Year (YoY) growth of 12%.
    • The onshore wind market added 72.5 GW worldwide. That is 18% lower than the previous year due to a slowdown in China and the US, the world’s two largest wind markets.
    • The offshore wind market enjoyed its best ever year in 2021, with 21.1GW commissioned.
  • New offshore installations likely to Decline:
    • New offshore installations in 2022 are likely to decline to the 2019 / 2020 levels.
      • Decline will be primarily due to the reduction of installations in China.
    • However, market growth is expected to regain momentum from 2023, eventually passing the 30GW-mark in 2026.
  • Offshore Wind Energy Generation Increases Return:
    • Offshore wind energy generation increases return on investment, along with reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
    • Carbon dioxide emissions can reduce by 0.3-1.61 gigatonnes every year by 2050 if offshore wind energy generation is scaled up.

What are the Challenges to Growth of the Wind Energy Sector?

  • Inconsistent policy environments focused on short-term political aims.
  • Badly designed markets which do not enable bankable renewable energy projects.
  • Infrastructure and transmission bottlenecks.
  • A lack of adequate industrial and trade policies related to renewable technologies
  • Hostile political or misinformation campaigns.

What is the Scope of the Wind Energy Sector in India?

  • In India, more than 1.4 GW of wind was installed in 2021, exceeding the 1.1 GW of installations during the previous year.
  • The Government has set a target of installing 5 GW of offshore capacity by 2022 and 30 GW by 2030.
    • India is yet to develop its offshore wind energy facility.
  • India can generate 127 GW of offshore wind energy with its 7,600 km of coastline.
    • Onshore wind energy refers to turbines that are located on land and use wind to generate electricity.
    • Offshore wind energy is the energy generated from the wind at sea.
  • The Indian wind market outlook for 2022 and 2023 is projected at 3.2 GW and 4.1 GW of onshore wind installations, respectively.

What are the Related Initiatives?

  • National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy: The main objective of the National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy, 2018 is to provide a framework for promotion of large grid connected wind-solar PV hybrid systems for optimal and efficient utilization of wind and solar resources, transmission infrastructure and land.
  • National Offshore Wind Energy Policy: The National Offshore wind energy policy was notified in October 2015 with an objective to develop the offshore wind energy in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) along the Indian coastline of 7600 km.

Way Forward

  • Governments need to tackle issues such as planning barriers and grid connection challenges.
  • To sustain and increase growth in wind-based generation capacity, policymakers need to streamline the procedures to grant permits, including land allocation and grid connection projects.
  • Workforce planning for large-scale renewables deployment should be an early policy priority and investment in grids must treble from current levels through to 2030.
  • There is also a need for greater public-private co-operation to confront “the new geopolitics of the wind supply chain”.
  • A stronger international regulatory framework is needed to address the increased competition for commodities and critical minerals.

Source: DTE

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