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Indian Economy

Global Innovation Index 2023

  • 03 Oct 2023
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: Global Innovation Index 2023, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), United Nations, South East Asia, East Asia and Oceania (SEAO) region, Science and Technology Cluster.

For Mains: Global Innovation Index 2023, Growth and development of India in Innovation.

Source: PIB

Why in News?

India retains 40th rank out of 132 economies in the Global Innovation Index 2023 rankings published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

  • The 2023 edition reveals the ranking of this year’s most innovative economies in the world amongst 132 economies and localizes the top 100 science and technology innovation clusters.


GII is a leading reference for measuring an economy’s innovation ecosystem performance. Published annually, it is also a valuable benchmarking tool used by policymakers, business leaders, and other stakeholders to assess progress in innovation over time.

What is WIPO?

  • WIPO is the global forum for Intellectual Property (IP) services, policy, information and cooperation.
  • It is a self-funding agency of the United Nations, with 193 member states.
  • Its aim is to lead the development of a balanced and effective international IP system that enables innovation and creativity for the benefit of all.
  • Its mandate, governing bodies and procedures are set out in the WIPO Convention, which established WIPO in 1967.

What are the Key Highlights of the Index?

  • Most Innovative Economies in 2023:
    • Switzerland is the most innovative economy in 2023 followed by Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom and Singapore.
      • Singapore has entered the top five, and has taken the leading position among South East Asia, East Asia and Oceania (SEAO) region economies.
  • Top Science and Technology (S&T) Clusters in the World:
    • The top Science and Technology innovation clusters in the world in 2023 are Tokyo–Yokohama, followed by Shenzhen–Hong Kong–Guangzhou, Seoul, Beijing and Shanghai-Suzhou.
      • S&T clusters are the areas in the world where the highest density of inventors and scientific authors are located.
    • China now has the largest number of clusters in the world, overtaking the United States.

What are the Key Highlights Related to India?

  • Overall Ranking and Growth:
    • India secured the 40th position in the latest GII 2023, showcasing a remarkable climb from the 81th spot in 2015.
      • This ascent underscores India's consistent and substantial growth in innovation over the past eight years.
    • India secured the top position among the 37 lower-middle-income countries and leading among the 10 economies in Central and South America.
      • Key indicators affirmed India's robust innovation landscape, including significant rankings in ICT services exports, venture capital received, graduates in science and engineering, and global corporate R&D investors.
  • S&T Clusters:
    • Compared to China’s 24 and US’s 21, India has only 4 S&T clusters among the world’s top 100. These are Chennai, Bengaluru , Mumbai and Delhi.
  • India’s Progress:
    • India’s progress is attributed to its abundant knowledge capital and a thriving Startup Ecosystem, along with commendable efforts from public and private research organizations.
    • The Covid-19 pandemic emphasized the vital role of innovation in addressing challenges, aligning with the nation's vision of Atma Nirbhar Bharat (Self-reliant India).
  • Need for Improvement:
    • Certain areas necessitate improvement, particularly infrastructure, business sophistication, and institutions.
      • To bridge these gaps, NITI Aayog is actively working to promote policy-led innovation in crucial sectors such as electric vehicles, biotechnology, nanotechnology, space, and alternative energy sources.

What are the Initiatives Related to Innovation in India?

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