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G7's Commitment Towards Carbon-free Electricity Production

  • 18 Apr 2023
  • 7 min read

For Prelims: G7 Summit Hiroshima, Global Energy Crisis, Net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, IPCC, Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana, Green Energy Corridor, National Smart Grid Mission (NSGM)

For Mains: G7, Indian Initiatives Related to Carbon-Free Electricity.

Why in News?

The Group of Seven (G7) countries' Climate and Energy Ministers and envoys have committed to ensuring carbon-free electricity production by 2035 and accelerating the phase-out of coal. The agreement was made at Sapporo, Japan, ahead of the G7 summit in Hiroshima in May 2023.

  • India was also invited in the summit as a ‘guest’, in the context of its G20 presidency.

What are the Major Highlights of the Agreement?

  • Recognising the current global energy crisis and economic disruptions, the agreement calls for accelerating the clean energy transition to net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050.
    • The G7 states cited the urgent need to reduce GHG emissions by around 43% by 2030 and 60% by 2035.
  • The participants agreed to accelerate solar and wind energy investments to produce 1,000 gigawatts of solar power and 150 gigawatts of wind power from off-shore platforms by 2030 in line with IPCC's AR6 Report that repeats the need to ensure that global temperatures do not increase by more than 1.5°C of pre-industrial levels by the end of the century.
  • They reaffirmed that fossil fuel subsidies are inconsistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement and committed to eliminating inefficient fossil fuel subsidies by 2025.
  • Key Issues that Lacked any Concrete Action:
    • Increasing efforts to assist other countries scale up their energy transition and energy efficiency.
      • The funding provided by developed countries continues to fall short of the commitment of USD100 billion per year made in UNFCCC COP27.
    • UK and Canada's proposal to phase-out coal by 2030

What is G7?

  • About:
    • The Group of Seven (G7) is an intergovernmental organisation consisting of seven major advanced economies: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
    • The G7, originally G8 (before Russia was uninvited), was set up in 1975 as an informal forum of leaders from the world’s most advanced economies.
  • Objectives:
    • The G7's primary objective is to foster economic growth and stability among its member countries.
    • It serves as a forum for leaders to discuss issues of mutual concern, including trade, economic policy, and international security.
    • The G7 also works to promote cooperation and coordination on issues such as climate change, poverty reduction, and global health.
  • Meetings:
    • The G7 holds an annual summit where the leaders of its member countries meet to discuss and address issues of mutual concern.
      • The summit rotates among member countries, with each country hosting the event in turn.
  • Significance:
    • Economic Powerhouses: The G7 countries are some of the world's largest and most powerful economies, representing 40% of the world’s economic activity.
      • They are also among the world's leading trading nations, with significant influence over global trade policies and regulations.
    • Global Governance: The G7 is an important institution of global governance, with significant influence over international institutions such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization.
      • Its policies and decisions can have significant implications for global economic and political stability.
  • Criticisms:
    • The G7, which consists of some of the world's most developed economies, is responsible for around a quarter of global carbon emissions.
      • It's a staggering figure that underscores the significant role that these countries play in driving climate change
    • The G7 has faced criticism for being exclusive and unrepresentative of the world's population, as it represents only a small fraction of the global population and excludes countries such as India and China, which are major economic powers.
    • Critics have also argued that the G7's influence has declined in recent years as emerging economies have become more important in the global economy.

What are India’s Initiatives Regarding Carbon-Free Electricity?

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Prelims

Q. In which one of the following groups are all the four countries members of G20?

(a) Argentina, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey
(b) Australia, Canada, Malaysia and New Zealand
(c) Brazil, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam
(d) Indonesia, Japan, Singapore and South Korea

Ans: (a)


Mains

Q. “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”.Comment on the progress made in India in this regard. (2018)

Q. Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problem of conventional energy. (2013)

Source: TH


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