Karol Bagh | IAS GS Foundation Course | 29 May, 6 PM Call Us
This just in:

State PCS

Daily Updates

Internal Security

Dima Hasao Peace Pact: Assam

  • 29 Apr 2023
  • 7 min read

For Prelims: Dimasa National Liberation Army, NCHAC, Sixth Schedule, Ahom rule.

For Mains: Dima Hasao Peace Pact, Dimasa Tribals and their protection under Schedule six.

Why in News?

Recently, the Dimasa National Liberation Army (DNLA) signed a Peace Agreement with the Assam government and the Union Government.

  • In September 2021, the DNLA had declared a unilateral ceasefire for a period of six months following an appeal by the chief minister. The ceasefire has been extended since then.

What does this Agreement Seek?

  • The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has been signed which makes the DNLA lay down its arms and abide by the Constitution of India.
    • The group will disband their armed organisation, vacate all camps occupied by DNLA cadres and join the mainstream.
    • A total of 179 DNLA cadres will surrender their arms and ammunition.
  • The central and state governments will provide Rs 500 crore each for the development of the Dimasa tribal areas.
  • Dimasa Welfare Council will be set up by the Government of Assam to protect, preserve and promote a social, cultural, and linguistic identity to meet political, economic and educational aspirations and will ensure speedy and focused development of the Dimasa people residing outside the jurisdiction of North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council (NCHAC).
    • Dimasa Tribal Region is run by NCHAC.
  • The MoU also provides for the appointment of a Commission under Paragraph 14 of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India to examine the demand for the inclusion of additional villages contiguous to the NCHAC with the Council.
    • The Sixth Schedule under Article 244 provides for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions — Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) — that have some legislative, judicial, and administrative autonomy within a state.

What is DNLA?

  • It is an insurgent group operating in Dima Hasao and Karbi Anglong districts in Assam.
  • The DNLA was established in April 2019 seeking a sovereign territory for the Dimasa tribals and launched an armed insurgency to achieve its goal.
  • The group aims to “develop a sense of brotherhood among the Dimasas and also to rebuild the trust and faith among the Dimasa society for regaining the Dimasa Kingdom”.
  • The group runs on extortion and taxation. “It draws its support and sustenance from the NSCN(IM) of Nagaland.

Who are Dimasas?

  • About:
    • The Dimasas (or Dimasa-Kacharis) are the earliest known rulers and settlers of Assam, and now live in Dima Hasao, Karbi Anglong, Cachar, Hojai and Nagaon districts of central and southern Assam, as well as parts of Nagaland.
      • Some of the historians describe them as “aborigines” or the “earliest known inhabitants of the Brahmaputra Valley”.
    • Prior to Ahom rule, the Dimasa kings — believed to be the descendants of the rulers of the ancient Kamarupa kingdom — ruled large parts of Assam along the south bank of the Brahmaputra between the 13th and 16th centuries.
    • Their earliest historically known capital was Dimapur (now in Nagaland), and later Maibang in North Cachar Hills.
    • It was a powerful kingdom and had almost all of the southern belt of Brahmaputra under its control in the 16th century.
  • Protection:
    • Dima Hasao district and Karbi Anglong both enjoy the Sixth Schedule status granted by the Constitution of India.
    • They are run by the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council (NCHAC) and the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC) respectively.
      • The Autonomous Council is a powerful body and almost all the departments of government are under its control except the police and Law & Order are under Assam Government.

What is the history of Militancy in Dima Hasao Region?

  • Militancy:
    • The hill districts of Assam, Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao, have had a long history of insurgency by Karbi and Dimasa groups which peaked in the mid-1990s, and was rooted in a core demand of statehood.
    • In Dima Hasao, the demand for statehood began in the 1960s, along with other tribal sections of undivided Assam.
    • While new states such as Meghalaya were carved out, Karbi Anglong and North Cachar remained with Assam on a promise of more power by the government, including implementation of Article 244 (A), which allows for an ‘autonomous state’ within Assam in certain tribal areas. This was never implemented.
  • Dimasa National Security Force:
    • A demand for a full-fledged state, ‘Dimaraji’, gathered steam, and led to the formation of the militant Dimasa National Security Force (DNSF) in 1991.
      • The group surrendered in 1995, but its commander-in-chief (Jewel Gorlosa) broke away and formed the Dima Halam Daogah (DHD).
    • In 2003, the DHD began negotiations with the government, but its commander-in-chief broke and formed the DHD-J (Jewel) with an armed group called Black Widow.
      • These groups were violent and had popular support. They signed a ceasefire in 2012.

What are the other Peace Developments in North East India?

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)


Q. The North – East region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyse the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region. (2017)

Source: TH

SMS Alerts
Share Page