Online Courses (English)
This just in:

State PCS

Daily Updates

Biodiversity & Environment

State of Climate Services Report 2021: WMO

Star marking (1-5) indicates the importance of topic for CSE
  • 08 Oct 2021
  • 5 min read

Why in News

Recently, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) released the State of Climate Services report 2021. It focuses on Terrestrial Water Storage.

Key Points

  • Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS):
    • TWS is the sum of all water on the land surface and in the subsurface, i.e. surface water, soil moisture, snow and ice and groundwater.
      • Water is a key prerequisite for human development. But only 0.5% of water on Earth is usable and available as freshwater.
    • Water resources across the world are under tremendous pressure due to human and naturally-induced stressors.
      • These include population growth, urbanisation and decreasing availability of freshwater.
    • Extreme weather events too have been responsible for the pressure on water resources realised across sectors and regions.
  • Global Scenario:
    • TWS dropped at a rate of 1 cm per year in 20 years (2002-2021).
    • The biggest losses have occurred in Antarctica and Greenland. But many highly populated, lower latitude locations have also experienced TWS losses.
  • Indian Scenario:
    • About:
      • The TWS has been lost at a rate of at least 3 cm per year. In some regions, the loss has been over 4 cm per year too.
      • India has recorded the highest loss in terrestrial water storage if the loss of water storage in Antarctica and Greenland is excluded.
      • India is the ‘topmost hotspot of TWS loss’. The northern part of India has experienced the maximum loss within the country.
    • Per Capita Availability:
      • In India, per capita water availability is reducing due to an increase in population.
      • The average annual per capita water availability has reduced to 1,545 cubic metres in 2011, from 1,816 cubic metres in 2001.
      • It is projected to further decrease to 1,367 cubic metres in 2031, according to the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
    • River Basins:
      • Five of the 21 river basins in India are ‘absolute water scarce’ (per capita water availability below 500 cubic metres) according to the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator.
      • Five are ‘water scarce’ (per capita water availability below 1,000 cubic metres) and three are ‘water stressed’ (per capita water availability below 1,700 cubic metres).
      • By 2050, six will become absolute water scarce, six will become water scarce and four will become water stressed, according to the State of India’s Environment in figures, 2020.
        • The Falkenmark indicator is one of the most widely used indicators for assessing the stress on water. It relates the total freshwater resources with the total population in a country and indicates the pressure that population puts on water resources, including the needs for natural ecosystems.
  • Recommendations:
    • Investments Needed:
      • Integrated Resources Water Management as a solution to better manage water stress, especially in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs).
      • In end-to-end drought and flood early warning systems in at-risk LDCs, including for drought warning in Africa and flood warning in Asia.
    • Fill Capacity Gap:
      • Fill the capacity gap in collecting data for basic hydrological variables which underpin climate services and early warning systems.
      • Fill the gaps in data on country capacities for climate services in the water sector, especially for SIDS.
    • Improve Interaction:
      • Improve the interaction among national level stakeholders to co-develop and operationalize climate services with information users to better support adaptation in the water sector.
      • There is also a pressing need for better monitoring and evaluation of socio-economic benefits, which will help to showcase best practices.
    • Join the Water and Climate Coalition:
      • Water and Climate Coalition is a platform for its members to partner on joint activities and implement solutions that address the gaps of operational water and climate challenges with a focus on data and information.

Source: DTE

SMS Alerts
 

Please login or register to view note list

close

Please login or register to list article as bookmarked

close
 

Please login or register to make your note

close

Please login or register to list article as progressed

close

Please login or register to list article as bookmarked

close