Panna Biosphere Reserve
- 11 Nov 2020
- 4 min read
Why in News
Recently, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has included the Panna Biosphere Reserve (PBR) in its World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR).
- The PBR is the third in Madhya Pradesh to be included in the list after Pachmarhi and Amarkantak.
- Along with PBR, the Fuvahmulahand Addu Atoll in the Maldives has also been included in the WNBR.
- Established in 1981, PBR is located in the Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh with an area of around 540 km. sq.
- It is situated in the Vindhya mountain range in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh.
- Ken River (one of the least polluted tributaries of the Yamuna River) flows through the reserve and the Ken-Betwa river interlinking project will also be located in it.
- The region is also famous for Panna diamond mining.
- Conservation and Recognition:
- 1994: The Panna National Park got the status of Project Tiger Reserve as India’s 22nd tiger reserve.
- 2011: It was notified as a Biosphere Reserve by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
- 2018: By 2018, it witnessed a remarkable turnaround in tiger population by increasing their numbers remarkably from zero estimated a decade ago.
- Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers in the country followed by Karnataka and Uttarakhand.
- 2020: UNESCO included it in the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB).
- Biosphere Reserves (BRs) are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large areas of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination thereof and representative examples of biogeographic zones/provinces.
- The idea of the biosphere reserve was initiated by UNESCO in 1974 under the MAB with the objective of obtaining international cooperation for the conservation of the biospheres.
- The first biosphere reserve of the world was established in 1979 and since then the network has increased to more than 600 in 119 countries across the world.
- A scheme called Biosphere Reserve has been implemented by the Government of India since 1986.
- Under it, financial assistance is given in a 90:10 ratio to the North Eastern Region States and three Himalayan states and in the ratio of 60:40 to other states for maintenance, improvement and development.
- The State Governments prepare the Management Action Plan which is approved and monitored by the Central MAB Committee.
- India has a total of 18 Biosphere Reserves and with the inclusion of PBR, the number of internationally designated WNBR has become 12.
- In 2000, the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve became the 1st BR from India to be included in the WNBR.
- In 2018, the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve became the 11th BR to be included in the list.
Man and Biosphere Programme
- Launched by the UNESCO in 1971, it is an intergovernmental scientific programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
- Every year UNESCO designates new Biosphere reserves and removes others to promote the conservation of biodiversity and resolve man-animal conflict at that site and enable sustainable use of natural resources.
- MAB combines the natural and social sciences, economics and education to improve human livelihoods and the equitable sharing of benefits, and to safeguard natural and managed ecosystems, thus promoting innovative approaches to economic development that are socially and culturally appropriate, and environmentally sustainable.