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Internal Security

Left-Wing Extremism in India

  • 27 Aug 2019
  • 5 min read

In the review meeting on LWE, the Union Home Minister has termed Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) as one of the major internal security threats faced by the nation.

  • However, events of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) violence came down from 2258 in 2009 to 833 in 2018.

Left-Wing Extremism

  • LWE organizations are the groups that try to bring change through violent revolution. They are against democratic institutions and use violence to subvert the democratic processes at ground level.
  • These groups prevent the developmental processes in the least developed regions of the country & try to misguide the people by keeping them ignorant of current happenings.

Declining Numbers

  • It was because of the never-ending successful efforts of our security forces that the number of related incidents, deaths & their geographical spread came down in the past decade.
Sr. No. Parameters 2009 2018
1 No. of incidents 2258 833
2 Deaths (Civilians & Security Forces) 1005 240
3 Number of affected districts 96 (in 2010) 60


Government Strategy to Curb LWE

  • SAMADHAN doctrine is the one-stop solution for the LWE problem. It encompasses the entire strategy of government from short-term policy to long-term policy formulated at different levels. SAMADHAN stands for-
    • S- Smart Leadership,
    • A- Aggressive Strategy,
    • M- Motivation and Training,
    • A- Actionable Intelligence,
    • D- Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas),
    • H- Harnessing Technology,
    • A- Action plan for each Theatre,
    • N- No access to Financing.
  • The national strategy to counter LWE was formed in 2015 as a multipronged approach to combat LWE. Its main aim was to ensure participatory governance and protection of the rights of local tribals, inter alia.
  • Intelligence sharing and raising of a separate 66 Indian Reserved Battalion (IRBs) was done by the government to curb the menace of LWE organizations.

Development of LWE Affected Areas

  • Few schemes being implemented by the government for LWE affected areas are:
    • Special Central Assistance (SCA)- for filling critical gaps in public infrastructure and services of emergent nature.
    • Road Connectivity Project- for construction of 5,412 km roads.
    • Skill Development- for construction of 47 ITIs (01 ITI per district) and 68 Skill Development Centers (02 SDCs per district) by 2018-19.
    • Education Initiatives- for building new Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVs) & Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNVs) where they are not present. It is also planned to open more schools under the Eklavya model.
    • Installation of Mobile Towers- for endless telecom connectivity.
    • Financial inclusion- for ensuring the presence of banking facilities within 5 km to all citizens residing in LWE affected areas.

Way Forward

  • Though the number of incidents of LWE violence has come down in the recent past, continued efforts and focus are needed in eliminating such groups.
  • Innovative measures are required to be employed in preventing IED (Improvised Explosive Device) related incidents which have caused significant casualties in recent years.
  • States play a vital role in maintaining law and order. So, emphasis should be laid on the capacity-building and modernization of the local police forces. Local forces can efficiently and effectively neutralize the LWE organizations.
  • States should rationalize their surrender policy in order to bring innocent individuals caught in the trap of LWE in the mainstream.
  • States also need to adopt a focused time-bound approach to completely eliminate LWE groups and ensure all-round development of the affected regions.
  • For the holistic last-mile development of “New India”, it is necessary to get rid of the menace of such radicalized groups, & the synergized efforts of the Centre and the States are crucial in achieving the same.

Source: PIB

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