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Internal Security

Central Armed Police Force (CAPF)

  • 20 Aug 2019
  • 8 min read

The Union Home Ministry has fixed the retirement age of all Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) personnel at 60 years.

  • The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) refers to seven security forces in India under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs.
    • Assam Rifles (AR)
    • Border Security Force (BSF)
    • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
    • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
    • Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
    • National Security Guard (NSG)
    • Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
  • Each of the seven has its own cadre of officers, but they are headed by officers of the Indian Police Service.

Assam Rifles (AR)

  • The Assam Rifles came into being in 1835, as a militia called the ‘Cachar Levy’, to primarily protect British Tea estates and their settlements against tribal raids.
  • This Force significantly contributed in opening the region to administration and commerce and over time they came to be known as the “right arm of the civil and left arm of the military”.
  • The Post-Independence role of the Assam Rifles continued to evolve ranging from conventional combat role during Sino-India War 1962, operating in foreign land as part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to Sri Lanka in 1987 (Op Pawan) to peacekeeping role in the North-Eastern areas of India.

Border Security Force (BSF)

  • BSF is a Border Guarding Force of India. Established on December 1, 1965, it is a paramilitary force charged with guarding India's land borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • The BSF has air wing, marine wing, an artillery regiment, and commando units. It currently stands as the world's largest border guarding force. BSF has been termed as the First Line of Defence of Indian Territories.

Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

  • The CISF came into existence in 1969 with a modest beginning, having three battalions, to provide integrated security cover to the Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs).
    • With globalization and liberalization of the economy, CISF is no longer a PSU-centric organization. Instead, it has become a premier multi-skilled security agency of the country, mandated to provide security to major critical infrastructure installations of the country in diverse areas.
  • CISF is currently providing security cover to nuclear installations, space establishments, airports, seaports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and ever heritage monuments.
  • Among the important responsibilities recently entrusted to the CISF are the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, VIP Security, Disaster Management and establishment of a Formed Police Unit (FPU) of the UN at Haiti.

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

  • The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939. It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act on 28th December 1949.
  • The mission of the Central Reserve Police Force is to enable the government to maintain Rule of Law, Public Order and Internal Security effectively and efficiently, to Preserve National Integrity and Promote Social Harmony and Development by upholding the supremacy of the Constitution.
    • Broad duties being performed by the CRPF are:
    • Crowd control
    • Riot control
    • Counter Militancy / Insurgency operations.
    • Dealing with Left Wing Extremism
    • Overall coordination of large scale security arrangement especially with regard to elections in disturbed areas.
    • Fighting enemy in the event of War.
    • Participating in UN peacekeeping Mission as per Govt. policy.
    • Rescue and Relief operations at the time of Natural Calamities and disasters

Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

  • ITBP was raised on 24 Oct,1962. Presently, ITBP is deployed on border guarding duties from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Jachep La in Arunachal Pradesh covering 3488 km of Indo-China Border and manning Border Outposts on altitudes ranging from 9000’ to 18700’ in the Western, Middle and Eastern sectors of the Indo-China Border.
  • ITBP is a specialized mountain force and most of the officers and men are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers. Being the first responder for natural disasters, ITBP has been carrying out numerous rescue and relief operations across the country.

National Security Guard (NSG)

  • The National Security Guard (NSG) is a counter terrorism unit. It was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi, "for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect states against internal disturbances.
    • NSG formally came into being in 1986 by an act of parliament.
  • The basic philosophy of NSG is swift and speedy strike and immediate withdrawal from the theatre of action. National Security Guard has been given the specific role to handle all facets of terrorism in any part of the country as a Federal Contingency Force.
    • It is a task-oriented Force and has two complementary elements in the form of the Special Action Group (SAG) comprising Army personnel and the Special Ranger Groups (SRG), comprising personnel drawn from the Central Armed Police Forces/State Police Forces.

Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

  • The Special Service Bureau (now Sashastra Seema Bal) was thus conceived in November 1962 and eventually created in March 1963.
  • The sole objective of achieving ‘Total security preparedness’ in the remote border areas for performing a ‘stay-behind’ role in the event of a war.
  • SSB is now spread along the International border across Uttarakhand, UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. SSB’s present charter of duties is to:
    • Safeguard the security of assigned borders of India and promote a sense of security among the people living in border areas.
    • Prevent trans-border crimes, smuggling and any other illegal activities.
    • Prevent unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India.
    • Carry out civic action programme in the area of responsibility.
    • Perform any other duty assigned by the Central Government (SSB is being deployed for Law & Order, Counter Insurgency Operations and Election duty).

Source: The Hindu

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