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International Relations

India Mexico Relations

  • 15 Sep 2022
  • 6 min read

For Prelims: ITEC, Cold War, Colonial Era, Latin America, Covid-19, Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Green Revolution.

For Mains: Significance of India Mexico Relations.

Why in News?

On the Occasion of Mexico National Day (16th September), India extended its greetings and felicitations to all Mexico Nationals and commemorated the 72 years of the establishment of diplomatic Relations.

How is India-Mexico Relations?

  • Historical Ties:
    • Being colonies in the past, India and Mexico have European connections of the colonial era.
    • Mexico was the first Latin American country to recognise India after Independence and establish diplomatic relations with India in 1950.
    • Mexican wheat varieties used in Indo-Mexican hybrids were the backbone of India’s Green Revolution in the 1960s.
    • In the Cold War years, Mexico and India had worked together closely as members of the United Nations (UN), both actively championing the interests of developing countries such as in the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations (under the World Trade Organisation).
      • Both countries are members of G-20.
  • Political and Bilateral Cooperation:
    • Both countries established a ‘Privileged Partnership’ in 2007.
    • In 2015, both countries agreed to work towards achieving a ‘Strategic Partnership’.
    • The two countries have several bilateral agreements and MoUs, including for Investment Promotion and Protection, Extradition, Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters, Space Cooperation, etc.
    • India gives 20 scholarships to Mexico under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme and Mexican diplomats are also given training at Forest Survey of India (FSI).
  • Economic and Commercial Relations:
    • India is the 10th largest trading partner of Mexico, and the trade balance has remained in favor of India for eight years.
    • Mexico is currently India’s largest trading partner in Latin America.
    • In 2021, exports to Mexico from India reached USD 5.931 billion and imports from Mexico were at USD 4.17 billion, taking the total trade to USD 10.11 billion.
      • India’s Exports: Vehicles and auto parts, organic chemicals, electrical machinery and electronic equipment, aluminium products, readymade garments, iron and steel products and gems and jewellery.
      • India’s Imports: Crude oil, mineral fuel, fertilizers, etc. Crude oil occupies 75% of the export basket from Mexico.
    • India’s exports of pharmaceutical products remained steady in 2020 and increased by more than 80%.
  • Security:
    • Both countries share a common concern over growing traditional and non-traditional security challenges, particularly the rise of global terrorism.
  • Cultural Ties:
    • The Gurudev Tagore Indian Cultural Centre has been functioning in Mexico since October 2010, teaching Yoga, classical dances, music, etc.
    • An agreement on cultural cooperation has been in existence since 1975 and cooperation activities are carried out through four-yearly ‘Programmes of Cultural Cooperation’.
  • Indian Community:
    • The Indian community in Mexico is estimated to be more than 7,000, comprising mostly software engineers of Indian IT companies, academics/professors, and private businessmen.
    • Tourism between the two countries is steadily increasing and Mexicans have been extended the online e-Tourist Visa facility.
    • Indian nationals holding ordinary passports but having a valid visa for the USA, the UK, Canada, Schengen area or Japan, and holders of permanent residence in the same countries or Member States of Pacific Alliance viz. Colombia, Chile and Peru do not need a visa for short tourism or business visits to Mexico.
  • Differences:

What are Recent Developments?

  • In June 2022, India and Mexico signed an agreement for cooperation in space, focusing on areas ranging from trade and investment to health and pharmaceuticals.
  • The specific cooperation agreement on crop monitoring, drought assessment and capacity building were signed on behalf of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
    • ISRO and AEM (Mexican Space Agency) last signed a memorandum of understanding on space cooperation for peaceful purposes in October 2014.

Way Forward

  • India and Mexico have striking similarities in geo-climatic conditions, biodiversity, physiognomy and people, cultural and family values. Both are heirs to a great civilizational heritage and contacts between them indicatively go back centuries.

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)

Q. In which one of the following groups are all the four countries members of G20? (2020)

(a) Argentina, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey
(b) Australia, Canada, Malaysia and New Zealand
(c) Brazil, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam
(d) Indonesia, Japan, Singapore and South Korea

Ans: (a)

Source: IE

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