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Hyderabad Liberation Day

  • 05 Sep 2022
  • 5 min read

Why in News?

The Telangana Government and Central government will observe 75 years of Liberation of Hyderabad on 17th September 2022 to signify the merger of erstwhile Hyderabad State under Nizam rule with the Indian Union.

What is the History about Integration of Princely State of Hyderabad into India?

  • Hyderabad was one of the largest natives/princely states in India. It was ruled by the Nizams who accepted the paramountcy of the British sovereign.
  • The Nizam of Hyderabad like the Nawab of Junagadh and the ruler of Kashmir did not accede to India before the date of independence, i.e., 15th August 1947.
  • He was encouraged by Pakistan and Muslim natives peoples, to stay as an independent power and improve his armed forces to resist the integration.
  • During this military improvisation, internal chaos emerged in the state of Hyderabad because of which, on 13th September 1948, the Indian Army was sent into Hyderabad under Operation Polo (military operation to annex Hyderabad into the Union of India), on the grounds that the law-and-order situation in Hyderabad threatened the peace of South India.
    • The troops met little resistance by the Razakars (the private militia who were resisting the integration), and between the 13th and 18th September, the military took complete control of the state.
    • The operation led to massive communal violence with estimates of deaths ranging from the official one of 27,000 to 40,000 to scholarly ones of 200,000 or more.
  • After the integration, the Nizam was retained as the head of state in the same manner as the other princes who acceded to India.
  • He thereupon, disowned the complaints that had been made to the UN and, despite vehement protests from Pakistan and strong criticism from other countries, the UN Security Council did not deal further with the question, and Hyderabad was absorbed into India.

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)

Q. With reference to Indian history, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. The Nizamat of Arcot emerged out of Hyderabad State.
  2. The Mysore Kingdom emerged out of Vijayanagara Empire.
  3. Rohilkhand Kingdom was formed out of the territories occupied by Ahmad Shah Durrani.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only

Ans: (a)

  • The Nizamat of Carnatic (Arcot) was one of the subas (dependency) of the Mughal Deccan and was under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad. Later, Arcot emerged from Hyderabad. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The Yadu dynasty came to power in Mysore in 1399 AD. A feudatory of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Yadu dynasty contributed significantly to the development of Mysore. After the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, Mysore became an independent state under the Hindu Wodeyar Dynasty in 1565 AD. In 1761, Hyder Ali overthrew the regaining dynasty in Mysore and established his own control over that state that was succeeded by Tipu Sultan in 1782. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The Kingdom of Rohilkhand was a powerful Indian State, nominally under Mughal Suzerainty, that arose under the declining Mughal Empire in 1721 and continued to exist until 1774 when annexation by the British transformed its significantly reduced borders into the Princely State of Rampur. Nawab Ali Mohammed Khan, a scion of the ancient Barha Dynasty became the first Nawab of Rohilkhand. Most of Rohilkhand’s borders were established by Ali Mohammed Khan and largely came into existence as a check to the power of Oudh State. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.
  • Therefore, option (a) is the correct answer.

Source: TH

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