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Expediting the Enrolment of Children in Schools

  • 22 Sep 2023
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: United Nation’s Education transformation Summit, SDG-4, Primary Education, Upper Secondary Education

For Mains: Need for improving the enrolment of children for realization of the 2030 SDG Targets.

Source: DTE

Why in News?

Recently, 2023 Global Education Monitoring Report titled ‘SDG 4 Mid-Term Progress Review’ released by UNESCO, paints a grim picture across the underdeveloped and developing countries with respect to enrolment of children at primary levels.

  • There are now 250 million children not enrolled in school, up by six million since 2021, according to the report. 
  • 1.4 million children must be enrolled in preschool every year until 2030, and primary completion rates must be almost tripled, as per the report.

What are the Key Highlights of the Report ?

  • About:
    • The 2023 Global Education Monitoring Report shows the progress made since 2015 against all SDG 4 targets based largely on the data of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, which oversees 10 of the 12 global indicators.
  • Report Finds that between 2015 and 2021:
    • Early Childhood: The percentage of children one year younger than the official primary entry age who are in organized learning programmes has remained constant at 75%.
    • Higher Education: The tertiary education gross enrolment ratio increased from 37% to 41%, with women (44%) having a six percentage point gap over men (38%).
    • Adult Education: Among 57 mainly high-income countries, the participation rate of adults in formal or non-formal education and training fell by 10%, mostly as a result of Covid-19.
    • Gender Parity: The number of young women completing secondary school for every 100 young men increased from 102 to 105 globally and from 84 to 88 in sub-Saharan Africa, which remains the region where young women face the largest disadvantage.
    • School Infrastructure: The share of schools with electricity increased from 66% to 76% in primary education and from 88% to 90% in upper secondary education.
    • Teachers: The percentage of trained teachers in primary education has remained almost stagnant at 86%. In sub-Saharan Africa, the percentage of trained pre-primary teachers increased from 53% to 60%.
    • Inequity in Access: During the Covid-19 Pandemic, the rapid shift to online learning left out at least half a billion students worldwide, disproportionately affecting the poorest and those in rural areas.
    • Education Completion Rate:
      • Sub-Saharan Countries
        • Sub-Saharan Africa remained well below the global average by more than 20% in primary education(64%).
        • Whereas, in upper secondary education, it remained below the global average (27%).
      • Vietnam:
        • In the 31 low- and lower-middle-income countries that measure learning progress at the end of primary school, Vietnam is the only country where a majority of the children achieved minimum proficiency in both reading and mathematics.

What are Sustainable Development Goals for Education?

  • About:
    • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of 17 global goals established by the United Nations in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
    • These goals provide a comprehensive framework for addressing social, economic, and environmental challenges to achieve a sustainable future for all.
  • SDGs and Education:
    • SDG 4 has 10 targets encompassing many different aspects of education.
    • There are seven targets which are expected outcomes and three targets which are means of achieving these targets.
    • By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)

Q. Consider the following statements: (2016)

  1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
  2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (b)

  • Adopted in 2015, SDGs came into effect in January 2016. They are meant to be achieved by 2030. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The SDGs were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The Club of Rome advocated resource conservation for the first time in a more systematic way in 1968. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
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