Biodiversity & Environment
Emissions Gap Report 2022: UNEP
- 28 Oct 2022
- 5 min read
For Prelims: Emission Gap Report 2022, Paris Agreement, Pandemic, GHG, COP-26, Initiatives to Reduce Emissions.
For Mains: Emissions Gap Report, UNEP.
Why in News?
Ahead of COP27, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) released a report titled ‘Emissions Gap Report 2022: The Closing Window — Climate Crisis Calls for Rapid Transformation of Societies’.
- This is the 13th edition of the UNEP Emissions Gap Report. It assesses the gap between anticipated emissions in 2030 and levels consistent with the 1.5°C and 2°C targets of the Paris Agreement. Every year, the report features ways to bridge the gap.
What are the Findings?
- The top 7 emitters (China, the EU27, India, Indonesia, Brazil, the Russian Federation and the United States of America) plus international transport accounted for 55% of global GHG emissions in 2020.
- For these countries GHG emissions rebounded in 2021, exceeding pre-pandemic 2019 levels.
- Collectively, G20 members are responsible for 75% of global GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emission) emissions.
- The global average per capita GHG emissions was 6.3 tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) in 2020.
- India remains far below the world average at 2.4 tCO2e.
- World is falling short of the goals set forth in the Paris Climate Agreement adopted in 2015, with no credible pathway to 1.5°C in place.
- The Paris Agreement defined a global warming limit of 2°C above pre-industrial levels (preferably 1.5°C), which if exceeded, can result in extreme weather events such as extreme heat waves, droughts, water stress, etc.
- National pledges since COP26 (Glasgow, UK) make a negligible difference to predict 2030 emissions.
What are the Recommendations?
- The world needs to reduce greenhouse gasses by unprecedented levels over the next eight years.
- There is a need for alternative technologies in heavy industry, to reverse the rise in carbon intensity of global steel production.
- Urgent transformation is needed to deliver the enormous cuts needed to limit GHG emissions by 2030.
- Unconditional and conditional NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) are expected to reduce global emissions by 5% and 10%, respectively, by 2030, when compared to current policies.
- To be on the most cost-effective path to limiting global warming to 2°C or 1.5°C, these percentages must reach 30% and 45%.
What are the Initiatives to Reduce Emissions in India?
- Bharat Stage-IV (BS-IV) to Bharat Stage-VI (BS-VI) emission norms.
- UJALA scheme.
- International Solar Alliance.
- National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).
- Ethanol Blending in India by 2025.
- India Updated its NDC.
What is the United Nations Environment Programme?
- It is a leading global environmental authority established on 5th June 1972.
- It sets the global environmental agenda, promotes sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for global environment protection.
- Nairobi, Kenya.
- Major Reports:
- Emission Gap Report, Adaptation Gap Report, Global Environment Outlook, Frontiers, Invest into Healthy Planet.
- Major Campaigns:
- Beat Pollution, UN75, World Environment Day, Wild for Life.
UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question
Q. The ‘Common Carbon Metric’, supported by UNEP, has been developed for
(a) assessing the carbon footprint of building operations around the world
(b) enabling commercial fanning entities around the world to enter carbon emission trading
(c) enabling governments to assess the overall carbon footprint caused by their countries
(d) assessing the overall carbon foot-print caused by the use of fossil fuels by the world in a unit time
Q. Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming, in the light of the Kyoto Protocol, 1997. (2022)