Online Courses (English)
This just in:

State PCS

Daily Updates

Indian Economy

Depreciation of Indian Rupee

  • 22 Dec 2021
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: Appreciation vs Depreciation of Currency, Depreciation of Indian Rupee.

For Mains: Reasons for Current Depreciation of Indian Rupee, Impact of Depreciation of Indian Rupee.

Why in News

The Indian currency declined 2.2% in the Sep-Dec 2021 quarter. This depreciation of currency is due to global funds worth $4 billion having been pulled out of the country’s stock market.

  • This downfall of currency makes the Indian rupee as Asia’s worst-performing currency.

Key Points

  • About Depreciation:
    • Currency depreciation is a fall in the value of a currency in a floating exchange rate system.
    • Rupee depreciation means that the rupee has become less valuable with respect to the dollar.
      • It means that the rupee is now weaker than what it used to be earlier.
      • For example: USD 1 used to equal to Rs. 70, now USD 1 is equal to Rs. 76, implying that the rupee has depreciated relative to the dollar i.e. it takes more rupees to purchase a dollar.
  • Impact of Depreciation of Indian Rupee:
    • Depreciation in rupee is a double-edged sword for the Reserve Bank of India.
      • Positive: While a weaker currency may support exports amid a nascent economic recovery from the pandemic.
      • Negative: It poses risk of imported inflation, and may make it difficult for the central bank to maintain interest rates at a record low for longer.

Appreciation vs Depreciation of Currency

  • In a floating exchange rate system, market forces (based on demand and supply of a currency) determine the value of a currency.
  • Currency Appreciation: It is an increase in the value of one currency in relation to another currency.
    • Currencies appreciate against each other for a variety of reasons, including government policy, interest rates, trade balances and business cycles.
    • Currency appreciation discourages a country's export activity as its products and services become costlier to buy.
  • Currency Depreciation: It is a fall in the value of a currency in a floating exchange rate system.
    • Economic fundamentals, political instability, or risk aversion can cause currency depreciation.
    • Currency depreciation encourages a country's export activity as its products and services become cheaper to buy.

Devaluation And Depreciation

  • In general, devaluation and depreciation are often used interchangeably.
  • They both have the same effect – a fall in the value of the currency which makes imports more expensive, and exports more competitive.
    • However, there is a difference in the way they are applied.
  • A devaluation occurs when a country’s central bank makes a conscious decision to lower its exchange rate in a fixed or semi-fixed exchange rate.
  • A depreciation is when there is a fall in the value of a currency in a floating exchange rate.
  • Reasons for Current Depreciation of Indian Rupee:
    • Record-High Trade Deficit: India’s trade deficit widened to an all-time high of about $23 billion in November amid higher imports.
    • Policy divergence Between RBI and Federal Reserve: The strengthening of USD in line with expectations of better growth in the US economy and favorable interest offered by the Federal Reserve (US’ Central bank).
      • The RBI has been continuously buying dollars to build its reserves and prepare itself for any volatility.
    • Outflow of Capital: Foreign capital exodus from stocks have led to the benchmark S&P BSE Sensex Index falling by about 10% below an all-time high touched in October 2021.
    • Omicron Concerns: When concerns about the omicron virus variant are roiling the global markets.

Source: IE

SMS Alerts
Share Page