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State PCS

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  • 02 Apr 2022
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: Chief Justice of India (CJI), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946, Enforcement Directorate, Central Vigilance Commission and Lokpal.

For Mains: Associated Challenges With CBI, Improving Law Enforcement, Police Reforms.

Why in News?

Recently, Chief Justice of India (CJI) N.V. Ramana said that the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) has come under deep public scrutiny. Its actions and inactions have raised questions regarding its credibility.

  • In pursuit of reforming law enforcement agencies, the CJI has proposed an umbrella, independent and autonomous investigative agency.

What is the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)?

  • The CBI was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
    • Now, the CBI comes under the administrative control of the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.
  • CBI derives power to investigate from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.
  • The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964).
  • The CBI is the main investigating agency of the Central Government.

What are Associated Challenges With CBI?

  • Political Interference: The Supreme Court of India has criticised the CBI by calling it a "caged parrot speaking in its master's voice", due to excessive political interference in its functioning.
    • It has often been used by the government of the day to cover up wrongdoing, keep coalition allies in line and political opponents at bay.
  • Overlapping Agencies: A single incident these days gets investigated by multiple agencies, often leading to dilution of evidence, contradiction in depositions, prolonged incarceration of innocents.
  • Acute shortage of personnel: A major cause of the shortfall is the government's sheer mismanagement of CBI's workforce, through a system of inefficient, and inexplicably biased, recruitment policies - used to bring in favoured officers, possibly to the detriment of the organisation.
  • Limited Powers: The powers and jurisdiction of members of the CBI for investigation are subject to the consent of the State Government, thus limiting the extent of investigation by CBI.
  • Restricted Access: Prior approval of Central Government to conduct inquiry or investigation on the employees of the Central Government, of the level of Joint Secretary and above is a big obstacle in combating corruption at higher levels of bureaucracy.

How Law Enforcement Can be Improved?

  • Creation of Independent Umbrella Institution: CJI proposed to bring various central agencies like the CBI, Enforcement Directorate and the Serious Fraud Investigation Office under one roof.
    • This organisation should be headed by an independent and impartial authority, appointed by a committee akin to the one which appointed the CBI Director.
    • The CJI said one additional in-built safeguard is to have separate and autonomous wings for prosecution and investigation, to ensure total independence.
    • A reasonable check and balance would be a provision in the proposed law for annual audit of the institution’s performance by the appointing committee.
  • Harmonious Relationship between the States and Centre: With the police and public order under the State list, and the burden of investigation is primarily on the State police.
    • The State agencies must be equipped to deal with increasing challenges in the field of investigation.
    • The proposed Central law for the umbrella investigative body, can be suitably replicated by the States.
  • Bringing Gender Parity: There was a need for adequate representation of women in the criminal justice system.
  • Bringing Social Legitimacy: The need of the hour is to reclaim social legitimacy and public trust and the first step to gain the same is to break the nexus with the political executive.
  • Criminal Justice System Reforms: There is need to implement long overdue Police Reforms and dealing with huge pendency of cases.

Source: TH

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