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Annual Public Enterprises Survey

  • 12 Aug 2021
  • 4 min read

Why in News

Recently, the 60th Public Enterprises (PE) Survey 2019-20 was released by the Department of Public Enterprises (DPE), Ministry of Finance.

  • It is the single largest source of information on Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) and acts as a basis for informed policy making.
  • The government has reallocated the Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) to the finance ministry from the ministry of heavy industries.

Key Points

  • About Public Enterprises (PE) Survey:
    • PE Survey is a 100% enumeration of the CPSE universe. It captures essential statistical data for all CPSEs on various financial and physical parameters.
    • PE Survey divides CPSEs into five sectors namely:
      • Agriculture,
      • Mining & Exploration,
      • Manufacturing, Processing & Generation,
      • Services,
      • Enterprises Under Construction.
    • The Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) started bringing out the Public Enterprises Survey from the financial year 1960-61 on the recommendations of the Estimates Committee of the 2nd Lok Sabha, 73rd report (1959-60).
  • About DPE And CPSEs:
    • DPE is the nodal department for all the Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) and formulates policy pertaining to CPSEs.
    • According to DPE, CPSEs mean those Government companies, besides Statutory Corporations, wherein more than 50% of the share in equity is held by the Central Government.
      • The subsidiaries of these companies, if registered in India, are also categorized as CPSEs.
      • It does not cover departmentally run public enterprises, banking institutions and insurance companies.
    • CPSEs are classified into 3 categories namely Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna.
      • Presently, there are 10 Maharatna, 14 Navratna and 74 Miniratna CPSEs.

  • Role of Central Public Sector Enterprises:
    • CPSEs in India have a twin objective of commercial efficiency and social responsibility.
    • The idea of CPSEs was conceived to eradicate the accumulated problems of:
      • Unemployment,
      • Rural-urban disparity,
      • Inter-regional and inter-class disparities,
      • Technological backwardness.
    • CPSEs envisage to develop the public sector as an instrument for self-reliant economic growth.
    • Before India got independence, it had only a few CPSEs.
      • These included the Railways, Post and Telegraph, Port trusts, Ordnance factories, etc.
      • Most CPSEs were set up after independence when the private sector had limited capacity for large capital intensive enterprises.
    • Challenge: The challenge for these enterprises arises out of the need for them to ensure a reasonable return on investment, while discharging their constitutional and social obligations.
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan - Contribution by CPSEs:
    • The CPSEs have taken a range of initiatives as part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan towards meeting the Government of India’s ‘self-reliant India’ agenda.
    • The initiatives include policy reforms, strategic partnerships, administrative actions, operational realignment and capacity building.
    • The initiatives by the CPSEs can be divided under five broad categories as shown below:
      • Enhancing local capacity to support Government’s larger strategic objectives.
      • Promotion of cooperation between CPSEs to explore synergies.
      • Providing a platform for greater participation of domestic firms/MSMEs.
      • Rationalising import dependency to ensure long term sustainability.
      • Development of indigenous technology and promoting technology transfer to CPSEs.

Source: PIB

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