Fishing is the capture of aquatic organisms in marine, coastal and inland areas.
Marine and inland fisheries, together with aquaculture, provide food, nutrition and a source of income to millions of people around the world, from harvesting, processing, marketing and distribution.
For many it also forms part of their traditional cultural identity.
One of the greatest threats to the sustainability of global fishery resources is illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.
India is the second largest fish producing country in the world accounting for 7.56% of global production and contributing about 1.24% to the country’s Gross Value Added (GVA) and over 7.28% to the agricultural GVA.
Fisheries and aquaculture continue to be an important source of food, nutrition, income and livelihood to millions of people
India aims to achieve a target of producing 22 million metric tonnes of fish by 2024-25.
The fisheries sector has witnessed three major transformations in the last few years:
The growth of inland aquaculture, specifically freshwater aquaculture.
The mechanization of capture fisheries.
The successful commencement of brackish water shrimp aquaculture.
Related Government Initiatives:
The development of five major Fishing Harbours (Kochi, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, Petuaghat) as hubs of economic activity.
Multipurpose seaweed park in Tamil Nadu would be the center of production for quality seaweed-based products, developed on a hub and spoke model.
The Bill proposes to only grant licenses to vessels registered under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958, to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)
Q. The terms ‘Agreement on Agriculture’, ‘Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures’ and ‘Peace Clause’ appear in the news frequently in the context of the affairs of the (2015)
(a) Food and Agriculture Organization (b) United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change (c) World Trade Organization (d) United Nations Environment Programme
The terms ‘Agreement on Agriculture’, ‘Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures’ and ‘Peace Clause’ are associated with World Trade Organization (WTO):
The WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) provides a framework for the long-term reform of agricultural trade and domestic policies with the aim of leading to fairer competition and a less distorted sector.
The WTO’s Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) aims to provide the balance between the right of governments to protect food safety, plant and animal health, and prevent these sanitary and phytosanitary measures from being unjustified trade barriers.
Peace Clause holds that domestic support measures and export subsidies of a WTO member, which are legal under the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture cannot be challenged by other WTO members on grounds of being illegal under the provisions of another WTO agreement.
Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.
Q. What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India? (2018)