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Prelims Refresher Program 2020

Hot Topics 2020

Day 3

  • 22 Jul 2020
  • 11 min read

Welcome to the Prelims Refresher Programme 2020 - Article Page. On this page, we will provide you with 3 things:

  • A list of topics for revision.
  • A brief discussion of the topics if needed.
  • Links to various sources for preparing these topics.
In the comments, you can ask us to clear your doubts regarding any of the topics listed on the page. We will do our best to explain and clarify your doubts. Further, we may also share links to other web based learning sources like websites or videos, or may refer to you, books, documents etc. Please be cordial to your fellow aspirants and use these doubt-clearing conversations strictly to its stated purpose.

UNFCCC COPs

In the light of rapid climate change and efforts to mitigate the change, the climate conventions such as UNFCCC remain a very important topic for UPSC. Also, several questions on UNFCCC have been repeatedly asked in the successive years. So there is a fair bit of chance that the question can be asked on this topic. One can find all streamlined and exam oriented information in the following links:

Previous Year Questions on UNFCCC

Q. With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2016)

  1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.
  2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 2ºC or even 1.5ºC above pre industrial levels.
  3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate $ 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3


Q. Consider the following pairs: (2016)

Terms sometimes Their origin seen in the news
1. Annex-I Countries — Cartagena Protocol
2. Certified Emissions Reductions — Nagoya Protocol
3. Clean Development Mechanism — Kyoto Protocol

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3


Q. The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of : (2016)

(a) pledges made by the European countries to rehabilitate refugees from the war-affected Middle East.

(b) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change.

(c) capital contributed by the member countries in the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.

(d) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world regarding Sustainable Development Goals.


Q. With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility’, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2014)

(a) It serves as a financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’.

(b) It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level.

(c) It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with specific aim to protect their environment.

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Carbon Sequestration

There has been a trend that quite often UPSC asks about the latest mitigation techniques to curb carbon emissions. In this context, Carbon sequestration is one such technique that becomes very important for this year's prelims.This can be depicted from the previous year questions. One can find all streamlined and exam oriented information in the following links:

Previous Year Questions on Carbon Sequestration

Q. In the context of mitigating the impending global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which of the following can be the potential sites for carbon sequestration? (2017)

  1. Abandoned and uneconomic coal seams.
  2. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs.
  3. Subterranean deep saline formations.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3


Q. Consider the following agricultural practices: (2012)

  1. Contour bunding
  2. Relay cropping
  3. Zero tillage

In the context of global climate change, which of the above helps/help in carbon sequestration/storage in the soil?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None of them

Organic Farming

India has great potential to grow crops organically and can become a major supplier of organic products in the world. Recently, Sikkim became the first ‘Organic state’ in India. In this context, organic farming is one of the important topics for this year from the prelims point of view. One can find all streamlined and exam oriented information in the following links:

Previous Year Questions on Organic Farming

Q. In India, the use of carbofuran, methyl parathion, phorate and triazophos is viewed with apprehension. These chemicals are used as: (2019)

(a) pesticides in agriculture

(b) preservatives in processed foods

(c) fruit-ripening agents

(d) moisturising agents in cosmetics


Q. With references to organic farming in India, consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. ‘The National Programme for Organic Production’ (NPOP) is operated under the guidelines and directions of the Union Ministry of Rural Development.
  2. ‘The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority’ (APEDA) functions as the Secretariat for the implementation of NPOP.
  3. Sikkim has become India’s first fully organic State.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

MSME Sector

Due to its huge contribution to the Indian economy, the MSME sector is called the growth engine of the nation. Also, a slew of reforms has been initiated by the government under Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan to help sustain the MSME sector. Along with this, a new definition of the MSMEs has been adopted by the government. So there is a fair bit of chance that the question can be asked on the MSMEs. One can find all streamlined and exam oriented information in the following links:

Previous Year Questions on MSME Sector

Q. Atal Innovation Mission is set up under the: (2019)

(a) Department of Science and Technology

(b) Ministry of Labour and Employment

(c) NITI Aayog

(d) Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship


Q. What is/are the recent policy initiative(s) of Government of India to promote the growth of manufacturing sector? (2012)

  1. Setting up of National Investment and Manufacturing Zones
  2. Providing the benefit of ‘single window clearance’
  3. Establishing the Technology Acquisition and Development Fund

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3


Q. Which of the following can aid in furthering the Government’s objective of inclusive growth? (2011)

  1. Promoting Self-Help Groups
  2. Promoting Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
  3. Implementing the Right to Education Act

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3


Q. Priority Sector Lending by banks in India constitutes the lending to: (2013)

(a) agriculture

(b) micro and small enterprises

(c) weaker sections

(d) All of the above

Cropping Pattern in India

Multiplicity of cropping systems has been one of main features of Indian agriculture and it is attributed to Rain-fed agriculture and prevailing socio-economic situations of farming communities. This is also an important topic for prelims point this year. One can find all streamlined and exam oriented information in the following links:

Previous Year Questions on Cropping Pattern in India

Q. Consider the following agricultural practices: (2012)

  1. Contour bunding
  2. Relay cropping
  3. Zero tillage

In the context of global climate change, which of the above helps/help in carbon sequestration/storage in the soil?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None of them


Q. Consider the following crops: (2013)

  1. Cotton
  2. Groundnut
  3. Rice
  4. Wheat

Which of these are Kharif crops?

(a) 1 and 4

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) 2, 3 and 4

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