2 Solved Questions with Answers
4. What problems were germane to the decolonization process in the Malay Peninsula? (2017)
MalayPeninsula was under the British influence since they first came in the late 18th century looking towards Southeast Asia for new resources. Since then the British East India Company traded and partly controlled the region. The growth of their China trade further increased the company’s desire for bases in the region near it.
The decolonization of Malaya Peninsula was an extension of the series of decolonization movements going across the Asia and Africa and was influenced from this process which speeded-up after the World War-II.
MalayPeninsula was a multi-racial, multi-cultural society with Malay Chinese and Indians forming major ethnic and interest groups which wasa suitable condition for colonial powers to consolidate their regime.
- Fall of Singapore and Japanese advances in
MalayPeninsula during the World War–II forced the British to consider reassessment of its non-interventionist policies in favourof ethnic cooperation and multiracial government in this region. But with the presence of diverseinterest of different groups reaching toa consensus was a tough task.
- Cold War ideological rivalry was prevalent in Malayan Peninsula too where with the rise of
comminternaligned communist parties like MalayanCommunist Party and Chinese Communist Organization, the fear of Malayan Peninsula falling to the Communists emerged. It was a nightmare for the liberal democracies/ colonial powers (i.e. British) which ensured transfer of power to ideologically friendly regimes.
The decolonization of Malayan Peninsula was largely a result of
longreconciliation process between the Malayan nationalist and the European colonial powers. Their mutual compromise gave the British the confidence to speed up the process of decolonization through a smooth decolonization process.
7. The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine. (2016)
The anti colonial struggles in West Africa as response to European imperialism assumed both violent and non-violent form of resistance and spanned from late nineteenth century to mid twentieth century. The form of resistance depended upon number of factors - influence of religion, nature of the colony, degree of imperialism etc.
The role of intellectuals in the freedom struggle in various phases stood out as beacon of hope for later movements (apartheid in South Africa in second half of twentieth century). One of the outstanding figures in West Africa colonial struggle was Samouri Toure. He created large Mandinka Empire in West Africa and his struggle is a significant example of pragmatic resistance against French. He manufactured firearms, relocated his kingdom and engaged in diplomacy with both French and British.
Another form of resistance continued alongside violent resistance i.e. , the use of propaganda through press and literature by intellectuals. J.T. Jabavu established the press ‘Native opinion’ (Imvozaba NTsundu) through which Black south Africans expressed their opinions. The ‘Lagos weakly Record’ was founded by John Payne Jackson, an America-Liberian journalist who was influential in Lagos, Nigeria in 19th–20th Century.
Besides press, the African intelligentsia also used societies, clubs and associations as vehicles for arising consciousness and disseminating information. The Gold Coast Aborigines Rights Protection Society (APRS) was one was one such associations formed in 1880s. In 1898 the ARPS successfully sent a petition to London to address issues with land Bill, and later for repealing the Town council ordinance. Another important organization founded in twentieth century was the ‘National Congress of British west Africa’ located in the gold cost which consisted of mostly African intellectual.