2 Solved Questions with Answers
2. (a) What do you understand by the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’? (2016)
Governance can be described as the process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implemented. Government is one of the actors in governance apart from interest groups, NGOs and civil society organizations etc. Governance is government in action.
Good governance is a form of governance which is:
- Consensus oriented
- Effective and efficient
- Follows rule of law
- Inclusive and equitable
It helps in holistic and integrated human development.
Ethical governance implies absence of corruption in governance. Ethical governance is driven by values such as honesty, integrity, public welfare, fairness, selflessness etc.
For governance to be good in the long-run, it is critical that it be ethical governance.
7. (b) Increased national wealth did not result in equitable distribution of its benefits. It has created only some “enclaves of modernity and prosperity for a small minority at the cost of the majority.” Justify. (2017)
According to a recent research paper by Thomas Piketty, the eminent French economist, top 0.1% of earners in India captured a higher share of the total growth than the bottom 50%. This shows that there has been no ‘inclusive growth’ in India.
The skewed income distribution patterns depict that the
policy makingin India has neither favouredthe ‘utilitarian approach’ nor the ‘common goods; approach. The nexus between the politicians and corporate (‘crony capitalism’) and the resulting corruption has led to concentrationof wealth and power in the hands of a small minority.
Rather than assuming the role of trustees of wealth, as Gandhi prescribed, there is an absolute lack of empathy and values like altruism and philanthropy. Due to the general degradation in the moral
fibreof the society, there is unwillingness among the ‘haves’ to part with the wealth and power for the benefit of the majority.
Consequently, India is witnessing the phenomena of ‘enclaves of modernity and prosperity for a small minority at the cost of the majority’.