8 Solved Questions with Answers
9. Discuss the potential threats of Cyber attack and the security framework to prevent it. (2017)
The benefits of cyberspace to citizens, businesses and governments are considerable and
far reaching. While technologies are overwhelmingly created for positive use, they can be exploited as well. Crimes in cyberspace cost the global economy around $450 billion a year.
Cyber attack is a particularly major threat to sectors identified under Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) that include financial systems, air traffic control
First, all the sectors identified as CII are dependent on connectivity.
Debilitatingattack on any one system can cause a cascading effect, disrupting the functioning of other systems.
Second, CII is highly dependent on industrial control systems, which depend on digital instructions. Any malicious takeover of these systems will not only disrupt but also seize functioning of CII.
Third, many CII, such as air traffic control, is dependent on navigational data, which is especially vulnerable to spoofing. If the integrity of this data cannot be ensured, the input of false data can have disastrous consequences.
The Indian government has also been aggressively addressing the rising prevalence of cyber threats. National Cyber Security Policy 2013 has been framed to create a secure cyber ecosystem, ensure compliance with global security systems and strengthen the regulatory framework. The union budget for 2017 included the formation of Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) for the financial sector.
The government has also sought data security protocol details from several
smart phonemanufacturers insisting that mobile manufacturing units be security-compliant. The Technology Development Board and Data Security Council of India (DSCI) have jointly decided to promote cyber securitystartups in India.
NASSCOM and DSCI
Cyber securityTask Force have also launched a roadmap to develop the cyber securityecosystem to $35 USD billion by 2025.
10. The North-Eastern region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyze the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region. (2017)
Due to its distinct socio-cultural background and particular historical evolution, the North-East region of India holds several fault lines around which many insurgent groups have been thriving for a very long time. The major reasons behind the evolution and survival of armed insurgency in this region are-
- This region has been one of the most neglected regions in terms of developments and is the main cause behind the resentment of the people living in this area. The insurgent groups take advantage of resentment of people and get support base.
- Alienation of population from
mainstreampolitical process, where the insurgent group continueto boycott the dialogue and electoral process. (Ex – NSCN-Khaplang group)
- Hilly terrain, dense forest
andporous borders give strategic advantages for the insurgent Guerilla groups and at the same timeit creates bighurdle for the counter insurgencyoperations.
- Racial clashes are very common here due to
diverseracial profile of the region. In a fractured societythe insurgent groups penetrate easily.
- Active and covert foreign support to these insurgent groups, through training, logistic and moral support has also been a big hurdle to eradicate these groups.
The twin approach of development and
counter insurgencyoperations coupled with honest political dialogue process may provide the best answer to the long infested insurgency in the North-East.
17. The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions. (2016)
With the Indian forces carrying out “surgical strikes” across the Line of Control, India seems to have abandoned the self-proclaimed policy of “strategic restraint” adopted in the face of earlier provocations by terrorists believed to be backed by Pakistan. This may not be the first time India has undertaken quick cross-LoC operations, but it has never before chosen to share information so publicly.
Strategic impact of this action can be following.
- This surgical strike indicates that India’s technical capabilities (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance — C4ISR) have improved a great deal.
- The terms “surgical strike” and “pre-emptive strike” used by India were intended to make it clear to the enemy that there will be repercussions and crossing the border does not guarantee immunity
- The strikes proved to be an important element for maintaining the morale of the people of India and the armed forces.
- The strike reinforced the credibility of the government and displayed its resolve, even as justified restraint and maturity was on display. This act would also counter India’s image of being a soft state.
- Russia has also backed India, saying Pakistan should take effective steps in order to stop activities of terrorist groups in its territory. India seems to have played its cards well by seeking international and regional isolation of Pakistan before striking infiltrator targets across the LOC.
There are also several negative impacts of these types of acts as it may escalate the conflict especially in case of Pakistan, Security forces can be trapped in enemy territory. It could be a cause of international censure for violating other country’s border.
18. ‘Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades.” Analyse the above statement. (2016)
In recent years, with the emergence of new terrorist organizations like ISIS, Boko Haram etc. terrorism has become a competitive industry. Like mafia organizations, where one-upmanship is often based on who has the most guns, money or local power, terrorist groups too have a pecking order.
The current competitive market in terrorism means that groups are trying to distinguish each other through the practice of more memorable violence (like the Charlie Hebdo attacks or the Peshawar attacks in December 2014). They need to do so because this is the only way in which they can be heard, become popular enough to attract recruits and distinguish themselves from other similar groups. In order to do so the terrorist groups are trying to out-do each other in the intensity and scope of violence and bloodshed they can cause so that more people can identify with them and join them. For example- while some years back, Al-Qaeda was the most dreaded terrorist group of the world, this position has now been overtaken by ISIS. One of the reasons for this can be because ISIS encourages lone-wolf attacks which are easier for its followers to carry out without actually travelling to join the group to fight in combat.
Various terrorist organizations are also in competition with each other to get control of various natural resources such as oil reserves in Middle East countries, cultivation of Opium, arms dealing etc.
Competition over establishing their ideologies all around the world has also instigated terrorist organization for example multiple groups are fighting with each other in Syria. So in recent time terrorism has become a competitive industry that has spread its influence all over the world.
19. Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management. (2016)
India has a very large and complex border covering around 15106.7km, which it shares with Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Bhutan as well as small portion with Afghanistan. Challenges in the effective border management particular to some neighbours are:
- Varied Terrain: India-China Border as comprising of difficult Himalayan terrain that is reason for difficulty in border management.
- Climatic Condition: Due to Himalayan polar condition, it is tough to guard border due to adverse climatic conditions. Ex: China, Pakistan
- Bitter relations with some of the neighbouring countries. Ex: Pakistan
- Porous nature of border with some countries that provides safe route to human traffickers, illegal arms dealers, drug smugglers etc. Ex: Myanmar
Owing to such peculiarities, having infrastructure and technology does not alone suffice for effective border management. Following strategies can be adopted for effective border management.
- Co-ordination among various agencies such as customs, immigration, armed forces, border security and intelligence agencies is required that will strengthen the border guarding and management.
- Smart border management to identify and implement controls which aim to improve border security by enabling effective communication and coordination.
- Use of Drone, Night vision cameras, sensors to check the illegal migration, terrorist movement can help in effective border management.
- Border fencing along the border such as with Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal can help in better border management.
- Coordination among neighbouring countries would also strengthen the measures taken for border management.
19. Mob violence is emerging as a serious law and order problem in India. By giving suitable examples, analyze the causes and consequences of such violence. (2017)
Over the past few years, there have been increasing incidents of loss of life and property due to mob violence – whether it be in Jharkhand over
rumoursof child kidnapping, in UP and Rajasthan by cow vigilantes, in Kashmir by violent crowds or over reservation by Jats in Haryana. Mob violence can be seen as a reflection of the displacement of responsibility by the state, which blames people for taking law into their own hands, and by citizens, who justify their actions on state inaction.
Causes for Increasing Mob Violence
rumoursspread through social media which acts as an anonymous force multiplier. Climateof impunity - Mob violence and vigilantism happens because criminals expect to get away with it. State deterrence is not perceived to be credible, especially when policemen are rendered as mere by-standersat the scene of violence.
- General erosion of law and order situation - inadequate response to societal disorder, and its inability to aggressively prosecute those involved in vigilante killings further encourages mob violence.
- Silence by society – People who are mute witnesses to such incidents, are just as responsible when they stay away from expressing their disapproval to such incidents for the fear of being caught in the cross-fire.
Consequences of increasing Mob Violence
- There is
deficitof justice when incidents of lynching across states happen, without those responsible being held accountable.
- There is
perversionof democracy, which confers upon the people an absolute monopoly on violence.
- Mob Violence threatens the very existence of dignified and meaningful existence in India enshrined in one of the Fundamental rights i.e. “Right to Life” (Art 21).
Therefore, there is
needfor comprehensive police reforms and efficient criminal justice delivery system which acts as a deterrence to people from resorting to mob violence in the name of justice.
20. Use of internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major security concern. How have these been misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat. (2016)
The use of internet and social media has become a powerful tool in the hand of non-state actors such as terrorist organizations.
Use of Internet, by terrorist organization such as ISIS in recruiting youth all around the world has become a reality. Cyber warfare is gaining importance due to increasing density of internet. The Stuxnet virus affected half of the world targeting Iran nuclear facilities.
Cyber espionage is also a great threat that exposes the vulnerability of any organization, or country. The recent theft of data of lakhs of ATMs cards in India is recent example of misuse of internet by non-state actors.
Social media is also been used by the like-minded individuals as a tool for radicalization. Muzaffarnagar riots in Uttar Pradesh got intensified because of misuse of social media by non-state actors.
In these circumstances effective strategies should be adopted to curb the threat posed by internet and social media. Following are some of the guidelines that can be very useful.
- India recently appointed first Chief Information Security Officer (CISO). It will help India in developing the vision and policy to fight cyber crime and manage cyber security more effectively.
- Creation of National Cyber Security Agency (NCSA) would improve India’s resilience and defense system.
- Monitoring of content on internet by intelligence agencies such as Intelligence Bureau, RAW can prevent any attempt to radicalize youths.
- National Cyber Security Policy 2013 aims at protection of information infrastructure in cyber space, reduce vulnerabilities. A National and sectoral 24×7 mechanism has been envisaged to deal with cyber threats through National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC)
- Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) has been designated to act as Nodal agency for coordination of crisis management efforts.
20. The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding? (2017)
India has been hit by terrorism
sincea long time, like, 1993 Bombay blasts, attack on Parliament in 2011, the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, Pathankot attacks etc. In view of such attacks it becomes imperative for India to check this rising menace, for which the following steps can be taken:
co-ordinationamong the intelligence and security agencies to check infiltration of terror activity.
- Empowering and engaging with civil society and local communities can help in countering radicalization and to stop the spread of violent extremism.
- Given the important role of educational establishments in promoting the values of non-violence, peaceful coexistence and tolerance, education must feature prominently in
- Several initiatives that promote
allianceof civilizations and intercultural dialogue must be promoted to counter terrorism. For instance, the Rashtriya Ekta Diwas celebrated on 31st October promotes unity in India.
- Enhancing security presence along the international boundaries and seal the porous borders.
- Undertaking policies to tackle economic and social inequalities will help in deterring disgruntled youth from being lured towards terrorism.
- Terrorist organizations have successfully taken advantage of the great benefits of the Internet. Hence, countering radicalization on digital media must be given priority. Governments should intervene in this matter through monitoring and counter-propaganda programs
- Incorporating ‘SAMADHAN’ in security operations in LWE affected areas and at
sametime focusing on development projects in Red corridor districts.
Sources of funding
- NGO, charities
anddonations are an important sourcing of funds for terrorism. These funds are mostly claimed through religious appeal, coercion andfears of victimization.
- Counterfeiting of Indian currency not only funds
terrorism,but, more importantly, it is used as a tool by neighboring states to destabilize the Indian economy.
- Drug financing
arealso a majorsources of terrorism financing in India. Biggestsource of internal funding for terrorist groups in India remains extortion. This is especially relevant for groups in the North-East and the Maoist-affected areas.