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Ancient history and art and culture

3 Solved Questions with Answers
  • 2023

    12. What were the major technological changes introduced during the Sultanate period? How did those technological changes influence Indian society?

    The Delhi Sultanate, a 320-year Islamic empire in Delhi (1206-1526), reached its zenith under Muhammad bin Tughluq, expanding its rule across most of the Indian subcontinent. This period witnessed several pivotal technological advancements, reshaping various facets of Indian society.

    Major technological changes introduced during the sultanate period:

    • Agriculture and Irrigation: Sophisticated irrigation systems, like Hauz-i-Shamsi, and water-lifting devices, like Persian wheel, improved water management and crop cultivation.
    • Architecture and Construction: Indian and Islamic architectural styles fused, creating Indo-Islamic architecture. Qutub Minar is an example.
    • Trade and Commerce: Standardized coinage, like Silver Tanka and Copper Jital, facilitated trade.
    • Military Technology: Fortified cities and forts, like Tughlaqabad Fort, improved defense capabilities. They showcased architectural innovations in military engineering.
    • Intelligence Network: Sultan Alauddin Khilji had a secret intelligence network called the “Barid-i-Mumlikat.”

    These changes influenced Indian society in many ways, such as:

    • Agrarian Expansion: Improved irrigation systems expanded agricultural lands, leading to the growth of rural communities.
    • Cultural Syncretism: The blending of Indian and Islamic architectural styles and artistic forms fostered cultural syncretism.
    • Numismatic Identity: Standardized coinage helped establish a unified numismatic identity across regions.
    • Military Infrastructure Legacy: The architectural innovations in military engineering left a lasting legacy of strategic planning and engineering expertise.
    • Intellectual Growth: Manuscript production and knowledge dissemination played a crucial role in the intellectual growth of the society.
    • Intelligence Heritage: The secret intelligence network laid the groundwork for a tradition of espionage and information gathering.

    The technological changes of the Sultanate period reshaped India’s culture, economy, and defense. They fostered prosperity and resilience, leaving an enduring legacy of innovation and adaptation.

  • 2023

    8. Do you think marriage as a sacrament is losing its value in Modern India?

    Marriage, a legally and socially recognized partnership aiming to form families and follow social norms, is deeply rooted in Indian culture and religion. However, in modern India, its value as a sacrament is evolving.

    Arguments for Diminishing Value:

    • Changing Norms: Society now accepts diverse relationships, reducing the emphasis on traditional marriage. Recent data shows an increase in the 'never married' youth population to 26.1% in 2019.
    • Individual Autonomy: Personal freedom leads to autonomous choices in partnerships, challenging arranged marriages through Live-in relationships and fostering single lifestyles.
    • Rising Divorce: Escalating divorce rates suggest a decline in the sanctity and permanence of marriage.
    • Economic Independence: Call for women empowerment extends choices beyond traditional marriage, challenging patriarchy and reducing sanctity of marriage .

    Arguments Supporting Marriage's Value:

    • Social Stability: Marriage continues to be a cornerstone for social stability by providing a structured framework for family life.
    • Legal Protections: It offers crucial legal rights in inheritance, property, and medical decisions.
    • Religious Significance: Many view marriage as sacred, tied to their religion, instilling moral values.
    • Psychological Security: Marriage reduces isolation, offering psychological security, vital for addressing mental health challenges.

    In sum, while marriage adapts to modern needs, it remains significant in contemporary India, serving evolving societal aspirations.

  • 2023

    1. Explain the role of geographical factors towards the development of Ancient India.

    Geographical factors played a pivotal role in shaping the development of ancient India. These factors encompassed the country's diverse terrain, climate, and natural resources, which in turn influenced settlement patterns, agricultural practices, trade routes, etc.

    Major geographical factors and their impacts:

    • River systems: Perennial rivers like the Indus and Ganges fueled urban civilizations like the Harappan, supported agriculture, ensured food security, and promoted trade and communication in India.
    • Mountain ranges: The Himalayas in the north acted as a natural defense, supplied river water, and influenced climate, yet passes like Khyber and Bolan fostered cultural exchanges and migrations.
    • Coastal plains: The Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal coasts boosted trade with Southeast Asia, West Asia, and Africa. Cities like Lothal and Muziris thrived as trade hubs.
    • Forested regions and plateaus: Dense forests supplied timber, medicine, and animals. Mineral-rich areas like Chotanagpur boosted metallurgy and mining. Forested zones like Nalanda and Bodh Gaya thrived as Buddhist hubs.
    • Desert and semi-arid regions: The Thar Desert acted as a natural barrier against invasions and fostered trade centers like Bikaner and Jaisalmer despite its arid conditions.

    Ancient India's geography shaped its civilization, culture, economy, and society, influencing interactions with the world and enriching its heritage.

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