Sendai Framework Report
- 03 Apr 2019
- 14 min read
Sendai Framework for Disaster Reduction 2015-30
- It was adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held from March 14 to 18, 2015 in Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.
- The present Framework applies to the risk of small-scale and large-scale, frequent and infrequent, sudden and slow-onset disasters caused by natural or man-made hazards, as well as related environmental, technological and biological hazards and risks.
- It aims to guide the multi hazard management of disaster risk in development at all levels as well as within and across all sectors.
- It is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.
Actions to be taken in four Priority Areas
- Understanding Disaster Risk:
- To promote the collection, analysis, management and use of relevant data and practical information and ensure its dissemination, taking into account the needs of different categories of users, as appropriate.
- To systematically evaluate, record, share and publicly account for disaster losses and understand the economic, social, health, education, environmental and cultural heritage impacts.
- To build the knowledge of government officials at all levels, civil society, communities and volunteers, as well as the private sector, through sharing experiences, lessons learned, good practices and training and education on disaster risk reduction.
- To ensure the use of traditional, indigenous and local knowledge and practices, as appropriate, to complement scientific knowledge in disaster risk assessment and the development and implementation of policies.
- To promote and enhance, through international cooperation, including technology transfer, access to and the sharing and use of non-sensitive data and information for supporting national measures for successful disaster risk communication.
- To develop effective global and regional campaigns for promoting a culture of disaster prevention, resilience and responsible citizenship.
- Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk:
- To carry out an assessment of the technical, financial and administrative disaster risk management capacity to deal with the identified risks at the local and national levels.
- To encourage the establishment of necessary mechanisms and incentives to ensure high level of compliance with the existing safety-enhancing provisions of sectoral laws and regulations, including those addressing land use and urban planning, building codes, environmental and resource management and health and safety standards.
- To establish and strengthen government coordination forums composed of relevant stakeholders at the national and local levels, such as national and local platforms for disaster risk reduction, and a designated national focal point for implementing the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030.
- To promote the development of quality standards, such as certifications and awards for disaster risk management, with the participation of the private sector, civil society, professional associations, scientific organizations and the United Nations.
- To formulate public policies on addressing the issues of prevention or relocation of human settlements in disaster risk-prone zones.
- To promote the strengthening of international voluntary mechanisms for monitoring and assessment of disaster risks, including relevant data and information, benefiting from the experience of the Hyogo Framework for Action Monitor.
- Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience:
- To allocate the necessary resources, including finance and logistics, as appropriate, at all levels of administration for the development and the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies, policies, plans, laws and regulations in all relevant sectors.
- To promote mechanisms for disaster risk transfer and insurance, risk-sharing and retention and financial protection, as appropriate, for both public and private investment in order to reduce the financial impact of disasters on Governments and societies, in urban and rural areas.
- To promote the mainstreaming of disaster risk assessment, mapping and management into rural development planning and management of, inter alia, mountains, rivers, coastal floodplain areas and all other areas prone to droughts and flooding.
- To increase resilience of country’s critical infrastructure.
- To strengthen and broaden international efforts aimed at eradicating hunger and poverty through disaster risk reduction.
- Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction:
- To establish community centres for the promotion of public awareness and the stockpiling of necessary materials to implement rescue and relief activities.
- To train the existing workforce and voluntary workers in disaster response and strengthen technical and logistical capacities to ensure better response in emergencies.
- To promote the cooperation of diverse institutions, multiple authorities and related stakeholders at all levels, including affected communities and business, in view of the complex and costly nature of post-disaster reconstruction, under the coordination of national authorities.
- To develop guidance for preparedness for disaster reconstruction.
- To establish a mechanism of case registry and a database of mortality caused by disaster in order to improve the prevention of morbidity and mortality.
- To enhance recovery schemes to provide psychosocial support and mental health services for all people in need.
- To enhance international mechanisms, such as the International Recovery Platform, for the sharing of experience and learning among countries and all relevant stakeholders.
Expected Role of Stakeholders
- Women and their participation is critical for effectively managing disaster risk and designing, resourcing and implementing gender-sensitive disaster risk reduction policies, plans and programmes.
- Children and youth are agents of change and should be given the space and modalities to contribute to disaster risk reduction.
- Older persons have years of knowledge, skills and wisdom, which are invaluable assets to reduce disaster risk, and they should be included in the design of policies, plans and mechanisms, including for early warning.
- Indigenous peoples, through their experience and traditional knowledge, provide an important contribution to the development and implementation of plans and mechanisms, including for early warning.
- Academia, scientific and research entities and networks need to focus on the disaster risk factors and scenarios.
- Business, professional associations and private sector financial institutions as well as philanthropic foundations need to integrate disaster risk management into business models and practices through disaster-risk-informed investments.
- Media need to take an active and inclusive role at the local, national, regional and global levels in contributing to the raising of public awareness and understanding and disseminate accurate and non-sensitive disaster risk, hazard and disaster information, including on small-scale disasters.
Expected Role of International Organizations
- The United Nations and other international and regional organizations, engaged in disaster risk reduction are expected to enhance the coordination of their strategies in this regard.
- The entities of the United Nations system through the UN Plan of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience, UN Development Assistance Frameworks and country programmes need to promote the optimum use of resources and to support developing countries, at their request, in the implementation of the present Framework.
- The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction is expected to support the implementation, follow-up and review of the present Framework.
- International financial institutions, such as the World Bank and regional development banks are expected to consider the priorities of the present Framework for providing financial support and loans for integrated disaster risk reduction to developing countries.
- The United Nations Global Compact, as the main United Nations initiative for engagement with the private sector and business, needs to further engage with and promote the critical importance of disaster risk reduction for sustainable development and resilience.
- The Inter-Parliamentary Union and other relevant regional bodies and mechanisms for parliamentarians, as appropriate, to continue supporting and advocating disaster risk reduction and the strengthening of national legal frameworks.
- The United Cities and Local Government organization and other relevant bodies of local governments to continue supporting cooperation and mutual learning among local governments for disaster risk reduction and the implementation of the present Framework.
- Over the 10 year time frame, more than 700 thousand people lost their lives, over 1.4 million got injured and approximately 23 million got homeless as a result of disasters.
- Overall, more than 1.5 billion people have been affected by disasters in various ways, with women, children and people in vulnerable situations disproportionately affected.
- In addition, between 2008 and 2012, 144 million people were displaced by disasters.
- Recurring small-scale disasters and slow-onset disasters particularly affect communities, households and small and medium-sized enterprises, constituting a high percentage of all losses.
- All countries – especially developing countries, where the mortality and economic losses from disasters are disproportionately higher – faced increasing levels of possible hidden costs and challenges in order to meet financial and other obligations.
- Evidence indicates that exposure of persons and assets in all countries has increased faster than vulnerability has decreased, thus generating new risks and a steady rise in disaster-related losses, with a significant economic, social, health, cultural and environmental impact in the short, medium and long term, especially at the local and community levels.
- Even ten years after the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action, disasters continue to undermine efforts to achieve sustainable development, though the framework has provided critical guidance in efforts to reduce disaster risk and has contributed to the progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
- It is urgent to anticipate, plan for and reduce disaster risk in order to more effectively protect persons, communities and countries.
- Enhanced work to reduce exposure and vulnerability, thus preventing the creation of new disaster risks, and accountability for disaster risk creation are needed at all levels.
- It is necessary to continue strengthening good governance in disaster risk reduction strategies at the national, regional and global levels and improving preparedness and national coordination for disaster response, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
- Disaster risk reduction practices need to be multi-hazard and multi sectoral, inclusive and accessible in order to be efficient and effective.
- Developing countries need special attention and support to augment domestic resources and capabilities through bilateral and multilateral channels in order to ensure adequate, sustainable, and timely means of implementation in capacity-building i.e. financial and technical assistance in accordance with international commitments.
- As per the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, held in 2012, entitled “The future we want”, the building of resilience to disasters needs to be addressed with a renewed sense of urgency in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and, as appropriate, to be integrated at all levels.