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New Economic Scenario for a New World

  • 06 Apr 2023
  • 12 min read

This editorial is based on “A new economics for a new world” which was published in The Hindu on 05/04/2023. It talks about how the paradigm of economics is changing in the West, and Indian economists must not only follow but also lead these developments.

For Prelims: Inflation and its type, Trade Agreements, Concepts of Appreciation and Depreciation etc.

For Mains: Challenges in current economic policy, Measures required to tackle problems of inflation, Unemployment, Rupee depreciation.

The changing paradigm would refer to a shift away from the neoclassical model of economics and towards alternative frameworks that better incorporate real-world complexities and factors such as inequality, power dynamics, environmental concerns, and behavioral economics.

The Indian government is facing three economic challenges: managing inflation, interest rates, exchange rates, negotiating trade agreements, and ensuring secure employment with adequate incomes.

Economists do not have a systemic solution for this "poly-crisis" and are divided on various issues related to central banking, inflation, protection of workers' incomes, and currency depreciation.

In this context, the government need a new paradigm of economic scenario so that such issues can be resolved in most efficient way.

The Current Paradigm

  • The current paradigm of economics is too linear, too mathematical, and too mechanical, and it is seen as having fundamental flaws.
  • Economists often use Tinbergen's theory, which states that the number of policy instruments must equal the number of policy goals, to justify the necessity of independent monetary institutions for managing inflation.
  • However, this approach does not provide a systemic solution for the economic challenges faced by many countries, including India.
  • The current paradigm of economics is also criticized for being too focused on free trade policies as the cause of economic growth and not taking into account the importance of human development as a means for growth.

Problems with the Current Paradigm

  • The inadequacy of the current paradigm was revealed by several crises in this millennium: the 2008 global financial crisis; inequitable management of the global Covid-19 pandemic; and the looming global climate crisis.
    • Some of the major challenges include income inequality, climate change, resource depletion, globalization-related job displacement and the rise of digital monopolies.
    • Income inequality is a growing concern in many countries, as a significant proportion of the population struggles to make ends meet while a few individuals accumulate vast amounts of wealth.
    • Climate change, resource depletion, and environmental degradation threaten the sustainability of economic growth, while job displacement caused by globalization and automation is leading to economic insecurity and social unrest.
    • Finally, the rise of digital monopolies has resulted in increasing market concentration and reduced competition, which could stifle innovation and lead to higher prices for consumers.

The Need for a New Economics

  • There is a need for a new economics that takes into account the complexities of socio-economic systems and considers human development as a prerequisite for economic growth.
  • Policymakers in India must find a way to strengthen the roots of the economic tree while harvesting its fruits at the same time.
  • This requires breaking out of the current linear and mechanical paradigm and embracing a more holistic and adaptive approach to economics.

What are the Potentials of New Economic Paradigm?

  • Balanced Approach to Economic Growth
    • It emphasizes a more balanced approach to economic growth that takes into account environmental sustainability and social welfare.
  • Drivers of Growth:
    • It also highlights the importance of innovation, technology, and digitalization in driving economic growth.
  • Inclusive Growth:
    • This approach recognizes the need for more inclusive growth that benefits all segments of society, rather than just a select few.
  • Additionally, it encourages international cooperation and collaboration to address global challenges such as climate change and inequality.

What are the Challenges with the New Economic Paradigm?

  • Some potential challenges that may arise include:
    • Resistance from entrenched economic interests,
    • Potential for increased inequality if not managed properly,
    • Managing the transition from the old to the new paradigm,
    • Ensuring environmental sustainability and addressing the geopolitical tensions that may arise as a result of shifting economic power dynamics.
  • Additionally, there may be challenges associated with implementing new policies and regulations that support the new economic paradigm, as well as potential difficulties in coordinating global efforts to address shared economic and environmental challeng

What Should be the Way Forward?

  • Embrace a Holistic and Comprehensive Approach:
    • Multisectoral Collaboration involving government, academia, civil society, private sector, and local communities. This can help in leveraging diverse perspectives, expertise, and resources to develop integrated solutions that address the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of the issues at hand.
    • Rely on data and evidence to inform decision-making, policy formulation, and implementation. Robust monitoring, evaluation, and learning mechanisms can help in tracking progress, identifying gaps, and refining interventions based on evidence and lessons learned.
  • Prioritize Human Development:
    • Investing in Education: By investing in education, governments and organizations can help individuals develop their skills and knowledge, which can lead to higher levels of economic and social mobility.
    • Promoting Healthcare: Providing healthcare services and promoting healthy behaviors can help individuals lead healthy and productive lives.
  • Tailor Solutions to Local Contexts:
    • Conduct a thorough Needs Assessment: It's important to understand the specific needs and challenges of the local community. This can be done through surveys, focus groups, and interviews with community members.
    • Build on Existing Infrastructure and Resources: Rather than starting from scratch, solutions should build on existing infrastructure and resources in the local context. For example, a health program may use existing clinics or community health worker.
  • Engage with Real People:
    • Engaging in ongoing dialogue and feedback loops with community members to ensure that solutions remain relevant and effective.
    • Using human-centered design principles to create solutions that are inclusive, accessible, and meet the needs of a diverse range of people.
    • Investing in training and capacity building for local people to enable them to take an active role in the development and implementation of solutions.
  • Foster Collaboration and Coordination:
    • Establish Clear Communication Channels: Effective communication is crucial to ensure collaboration and coordination among different stakeholders.
    • Identify Shared Goals: Identify shared goals and objectives that all stakeholders can work towards. This helps to align efforts and reduce conflicts.
    • Build Trust: Building trust among stakeholders is important for fostering collaboration and coordination. Encourage open communication, active listening, and mutual respect to build trust and promote collaboration.
  • Embrace Innovation and Adaptability:
    • Foster a Culture of Innovation: Encourage experimentation and creative thinking to solve problems.
    • Embrace Emerging Technologies: Keep up-to-date with new technologies that can help to solve problems in innovative ways and encourage risk-taking attitude.
  • Promote Inclusivity and Social Justice:
    • Create Opportunities for Marginalized Groups: To promote inclusivity, we need to create opportunities for marginalized groups such as women, ethnic minorities, and people with disabilities. This includes access to education, training, employment, and other resources that can help them achieve their full potential.
    • Eliminate Discrimination: Discrimination is a major barrier to inclusivity and social justice. To promote inclusivity, we need to eliminate discrimination in all its forms, including racism, sexism, and other forms of prejudice.


The current paradigm of economics is inadequate in addressing the complex economic challenges faced by India and other countries. Lessons from China and Vietnam highlight the importance of human development and simultaneous income growth in achieving sustainable economic growth.

Economists need to adopt a more comprehensive and adaptive approach to economics to better understand and solve complex socio-economic problems. Policymakers in India and other countries must be willing to embrace a new economics for a new world. It is time to rethink and reform the current economic paradigm to create a more inclusive and sustainable economic future.

Drishti Mains Question

Discuss the fundamental flaws in the current paradigm of economics in the context of India? (250 words)

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Question (PYQ)


1. Consider the following statements: (2018)

Human capital formation as a concept is better explained in terms of a process which enables

  1. individuals of a country to accumulate more capital.
  2. increasing the knowledge, skill levels and capacities of the people of the country.
  3. accumulation of tangible wealth.
  4. accumulation of intangible wealth

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 4
(d) 1, 3 and 4

Ans: (c)


  • The people of the nation as resources refer to the country’s working population in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. This aspect of the population of a nation, with emphasis on people’s ability to contribute to the creation of the Gross National Product, is known as Human Capital.
  • Human capital formation is defined as development of the human resource by investing in health, education, and skill development of the human resource. Human capital formation in other terms encompasses in itself the process of increasing knowledge, skill level and capacities of the people of the country. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Education, skill development, vocational training, and on – the job training form the part of intangible wealth of the human resource and human capital. Hence, statement 4 is correct and statements 1, 3 are not correct.
  • Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.
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