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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Summit 2022

  • 17 Sep 2022
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation(SCO), Afghanistan, Russia, Resilient supply chains, International Year of Millets, Global Center for Traditional Medicines.

For Mains: India and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).

Why in News?

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit 2022 was held recently in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

  • Samarkand declaration was signed by the member states.
  • India takes over Presidency of the SCO for 2023.

What are the Key Highlights of the Summit?

  • The Samarkand declaration advocated “commitment to peaceful settlement of differences and disputes between countries through dialogue and consultation”.
  • They stress that the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity of States, equality, mutual benefit, non- interference in internal affairs, and non-use or threat of use of force are the basis for sustainable development of international relations.
  • The member countries are planning to develop common principles and approaches to form a unified list of terrorists, separatist and extremist organizations whose activities are prohibited on the territories of the SCO member states.
  • Russia is also looking at more customers for its gas as Western countries look to cut their dependence on it.
  • Russia suggested that the organisation should think about holding its own big athletic event.
  • Indian Perspective:
    • Connectivity: India urged Shanghai Cooperation Organisation member states to give each other full right to transit, as it would enhance connectivity and help in establishing reliable and resilient supply chains in the region.
    • Food Security: As the whole world is facing an unprecedented energy and food crisis, India emphasised the initiative to promote millet and address issues related to food security.
      • In this context, India is trying to popularise millets, as SCO can play a big role in marking 2023 as the International Year of Millets.
    • Working Group on Traditional Medicine: World Health Organisation (WHO) opened its Global Center for Traditional Medicines in Gujarat in April 2022.
      • This was the first and only worldwide centre for conventional medicine established by the WHO.
    • Tourism: Varanasi was declared as the SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital for 2022-2023 to promote the rich cultural and historical heritage of the people and the tourism potential of SCO member states.
      • Further, it will promote tourism, cultural and humanitarian exchanges between India and the SCO member Countries.
      • It also underlines India’s ancient civilizational links with the Member States of SCO, especially the Central Asian Republics.
      • Under the framework of this major cultural outreach program, a number of events will be hosted in Varanasi during 2022-23.

What do we know about Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)?

  • About:
    • It is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation. It was created in 2001.
    • The SCO Charter was signed in 2002, and entered into force in 2003.
    • It’s a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in the region.
    • It is seen as a counterweight to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), It is a nine-member economic and security bloc and has emerged as one of the largest transregional international organisations.
  • Official Languages:
    • Russian and Chinese.
  • Permanent Bodies:
    • SCO Secretariat in Beijing.
    • Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) in Tashkent.
  • Chairmanship:
    • It is by rotation for a year by Member States.
  • Genesis:
    • Prior to the creation of SCO in 2001, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five.
    • Shanghai Five (1996) emerged from a series of border demarcation and demilitarization talks which the four former Soviet republics held with China to ensure stability along the borders.
    • Following the accession of Uzbekistan to the organisation in 2001, the Shanghai Five was renamed the SCO.
    • India and Pakistan became members in 2017.
    • Current Members: Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India and Pakistan.
    • Iran is set to become a permanent member of the SCO in 2023.
      • India was made an observer at the SCO in 2005 and has generally participated in the ministerial-level meetings of the grouping which focus mainly on security and economic cooperation in the Eurasian region.

Source: IE

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