For Mains: Shangri La Dialogue Defence Summit, Issue Between Russia and Ukraine.
Why in News?
Indonesia's Defence Minister presented a peace plan on June 3rd during the Shangri-La Dialogue defence summit in Singapore, aimed at resolving the ongoing conflict betweenRussia and Ukraine.
What are the Major Highlights of Shangri-La Dialogue Defence Summit?
Indonesia’s Peace Proposal:
Immediate Cessation of Hostilities: Calling upon both Russia and Ukraine to halt the ongoing hostilities, recognizing the severe economic and food supply impact the conflict has had on Asian nations.
Ceasefire at Present Positions: The plan suggests a ceasefire at the current frontlines, aiming to bring an end to the fighting and minimise further casualties.
Establishment of Demilitarized Zones: Proposed the creation of demilitarised zones, which would be observed and guaranteed by international observers and United Nations peacekeeping forces.
UN-Organized Referendum: The plan suggests conducting a referendum in the disputed areas, organised and overseen by the United Nations, to determine the aspirations of the affected population.
Chinese Peace Plan: China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs released a 12-point peace plan proposed by China to end the hostilities between Russia and Ukraine.
The plan includes calling for a ceasefire, considering Russia's security concerns, providing humanitarian assistance to Ukraine, facilitating prisoner exchanges, and lifting unilateral sanctions, among other measures.
Western Allies' Aid to Ukraine: In contrast to China, the United States and Western allies have provided significant military assistance and aid to Ukraine since Russia's invasion.
What is the Shangri La Dialogue?
The Shangri La Dialogue (SLD) is an annual inter-governmental security conference held in Singapore by an independent think tank, the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS).
The dialogue is attended by Defence ministers, permanent heads of ministries and military chiefs of mostly Asia-Pacific states, as well as legislators, academic experts, journalists and business delegates.
The dialogue is named after the Shangri-La Hotel in Singapore, where it has been held since 2002.
The forum aims to cultivate a sense of community among the most important policymakers in the defence and security community in the region, and to foster practical security cooperation.
What is the Issue Between Russia and Ukraine?
As part of the Soviet Union,Ukraine was the second-most powerful Soviet republic after Russia, and was crucial strategically, economically and culturally.
Ever since Ukraine split from the Soviet Union, both Russia and the West have vied for greater influence in the country in order to keep the balance of power in the region in their favour.
Beginning of the Conflict:
The conflict began in February 2014 when Russia covertly invaded and annexed Crimea, a Ukrainian autonomous republic with a large ethnic Russian population and a strategic naval base.
Russia also supported pro-Russian separatists who took up arms against the Ukrainian government in the eastern regions of Donetsk and Luhansk, collectively known as the Donbas.
The conflict has also involved naval incidents, cyberattacks, propaganda campaigns, and political assassinations.
It has strained relations between Russia and the West as well, which have imposed sanctions on each other and accused each other of interference and aggression.
Russia-Ukraine War 2022:
In 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, targeting cities across the country with missile strikes and advancing its troops and proxies on multiple fronts. The invasion triggered a global crisis and a humanitarian catastrophe.
The main causes of the conflict are historical, geopolitical, and ideological.
Russia sees Ukraine as part of its sphere of influence and resents its pro-Western orientation and aspirations to join NATO and the EU.
Ukraine sees Russia as an aggressor and a threat to its sovereignty and territorial integrity.
The main goals of the conflict are disputed. Russia claims to protect the rights and interests of ethnic Russians and Russian speakers in Ukraine, to restore historical justice, and to counter Western encroachment.
Ukraine claims to defend its independence, democracy, and European integration.
The main implications of the conflict are profound and far-reaching. They affect the security, stability, and prosperity of the globe, the balance of power and order in the world, the norms and values of international law and human rights, the prospects for democracy and development in the region, and the lives and futures of millions of people.
UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Question:
Q. Consider the following countries: (2023)
How many of the above-mentioned countries share a land border with Ukraine?
(a) Only two (b) Only three (c) Only four (d) Only five