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India-Italy Migration and Mobility Agreement

  • 02 Jan 2024
  • 4 min read

For Prelims: India-Italy Migration and Mobility Agreement, European Union, Location of Italy, India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor, Global Biofuel Alliance, Blue-Raman project

For Mains: Areas of Cooperation Between India and Italy

Source: PIB

Why in News?

Recently, the Union Cabinet granted ex-post facto approval to the Migration and Mobility Agreement between India and Italy.

What is Migration and Mobility Agreement between India and Italy?

  • About:
    • The agreement is set to strengthen cooperation on issues related to irregular migration while bolstering people-to-people ties between India and Italy.
    • It facilitates mobility for various segments, including students, skilled workers, businesspersons, and young professionals, fostering exchange and collaboration.
  • Key Provisions:
    • Temporary Residence for Indian Students: Graduates seeking professional exposure in Italy post-academic or vocational training can secure temporary residency for up to 12 months.
    • Reserved Quotas for Workers: The agreement outlines quotas for non-seasonal and seasonal Indian workers, with a reserved quota range over the years 2023-2025 under the existing Flows Decree.
      • The Italian government's annual "Flow Decree" (Decreto Flussi) sets the maximum number of non-EU citizens who can enter Italy for work and self-employment
  • Implementation:
    • The agreement will remain in force for 5 years, with automatic renewal unless terminated.
    • A Joint Working Group (JWG) will oversee its implementation, convening periodically to evaluate progress and propose supportive measures for effective execution.

Key Facts About Italy

  • About:
    • Italy is a boot-shaped peninsula that juts out of southern Europe into the Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and other waters.
  • Bordering Countries:
    • Italy has international borders with Austria, France, the Holy See (Vatican City), San Marino, Slovenia, and Switzerland.
    • Italy also shares maritime borders with Albania, Algeria, Croatia, Greece, Libya, Malta, Montenegro, Spain, and Tunisia.
  • Form of Government: Republic
  • Capital: Rome
  • Money: Euro
  • Major Mountains: Alps, Apennines
  • Major Rivers: Po, Adige, Arno, Tiber

What are the Other Areas of Cooperation Between India and Italy?

  • Historical Ties:
    • India and Italy are ancient civilizations but young states. Italian port cities were important trading posts on the spice route.
    • The Venetian merchant Marco Polo, during his travels to the east, also traveled to India in the 13th century and wrote about his experiences.
  • Political:
    • Political relations between India and Italy were established in 1947.
    • In March 2023, India and Italy elevated their relationship to a Strategic Partnership.
  • Economic:
    • The bilateral trade between the two countries was valued at USD 14.25 billion in 2022-23.
    • Main items of Indian exports to Italy are ready-made garments, leather, iron ore, motor vehicles, textiles, chemicals, gems & jewelry.
      • The main items of import from Italy are general and special purpose machinery, machine tools, metallurgical products, and engineering items.
  • Security:
    • The India-Italy Military Cooperation Group (MCG) is a forum established to boost defense cooperation between the both countries.
  • Other Initiatives Involving India and Italy:

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