Important Facts for Prelims (04th October 2018)
- 04 Oct 2018
- 11 min read
Champions of the Earth Award
- Recently Prime Minister of India received the Champions of the Earth Award. It is the UN’s highest environmental honor.
- Prime Minister has been selected in the leadership category for his pioneering work in championing the International Solar Alliance and for his unprecedented pledge to eliminate all single-use plastic in India by 2022.
- Launched in 2005, it recognizes outstanding figures from the public and private sectors and from the civil society whose actions have had a transformative positive impact on the environment.
- Through their extraordinary achievements – whether through political leadership, grassroots action, scientific innovation, or entrepreneurial vision – each of these Champions has inspired critical action on behalf of the global environment.
- Champions of the Earth recognizes laureates in the following categories:
- Lifetime Achievement
- Policy Leadership
- Action and Inspiration
- Entrepreneurial Vision
- Science and Innovation
Dwarf planet: ‘Goblin’
- A new dwarf planet was discovered by scientist which is named as ‘The Goblin’.
- It was named Goblin as it was spotted by astronomers in 2015 around Halloween.
- Its provisional name, 2015 TG387.
- At the time of discovery, the Goblin was 80 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun (1 AU is equal to the distance between the Earth and the Sun).
- At its closest, the Goblin is 65 AU from the Sun.
- It orbits the Sun once in 40,000 years.
- According to the International Astronomical Union "dwarf planet" is a celestial body that
- is in orbit around the Sun,
- has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape.
- has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit, and(meaning it has not become gravitationally dominant in its orbit)
- is not a satellite.
- Five recognized Dwarf Planets are:
- Ceres: It is only dwarf planet located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.
- Pluto: Pluto was formerly a planet and was reclassified to a Dwarf Planet status.
- Eris: It is located in Kuiper Belt. It is the second largest dwarf planet after Pluto.
- Makemake: It is located in Kuiper belt.
- Haumea: It is located in Kuiper Belt.
Asian Development Bank(ADB)
- The government of India and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed $240 million loans for providing safe and sustainable drinking water to about 1.65 million people in three districts of the state of West Bengal affected by arsenic, fluoride, and salinity.
- Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $150 million Loan Agreement to establish a Global Skills Park (GSP), which is under Department of Technical Education, Skill Development and Employment. Govt. of Madhya Pradesh.
- It is the First Multi-Skills Park in India.
- The purpose is to enhance the quality of Technical and Vocational Education And Training (TVET) System in the State and create a more skilled workforce.
- The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $100 Million Loan Agreement to provide sewage treatment and strengthen the capacity of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) for resilient urban services.
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
- The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966.
- ADB is headquartered in Manila, Philippines. It aims to promote social and economic development in Asia.
- ADB now has 67 members, of which 48 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside.
- Japan holds the largest proportion of shares in ADB followed by the USA.
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act
- The Centre has extended the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act in three districts of Arunachal Pradesh bordering Assam by another six months,in view of continuing activities of banned insurgent groups of the Northeast.
- The groups like National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-K), United Liberation Front Of Assam (ULFA) and National Democratic Front of Boroland (NDFB) are active in these areas of Arunachal Pradesh.
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act
- The Act was enacted in 1958 to bring under control what the government considered ‘disturbed areas’.
- Jammu & Kashmir has a similar but separate act Armed Forces (Jammu & Kashmir) Special Powers Act, 1990.
- Section 3 of the Act empowers the Governor/Administrator of state/UT to declare an area as ‘disturbed’. Once declared, the region has to maintain status quo for minimum three months (according to Disturbed Areas (Special Courts) Act, 1976.
- As per the Act, it can be invoked in places “where the use of armed forces in aid of the civil power is necessary.”
- The AFSPA gives power to the Army and Central forces deployed in “disturbed areas” to search premises and arrest without warrant, to use force even to the extent of causing death.
- It also gives immunity to security forces in carrying out various operations and provides cover to forces from prosecution and legal suits without the Centre’s sanction.
- To check arbitrariness there should be a periodic review of ‘disturbed area’ every six months.
- On the occasion of 149th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), has launched a National Level Entrepreneurship Awareness Campaign, Udyam Abhilasha in 115 Aspirational Districts identified by NITI Aayog in 28 States.
- The campaign would create and strengthen cadre of more than 800 trainers to provide entrepreneurship training to the aspiring youths across these districts.
- SIDBI has partnered with Common Services Centre (CSC) e-Governance Services India Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle, (CSC SPV) set up by the Ministry of Electronics & IT, Govt. of India for implementing the campaign through their CSCs.
- The objectives of the missionary campaign includes :-
- inspiring rural youth in aspirational districts to be entrepreneurs by assisting them to set up their own enterprise,
- imparting trainings through digital medium across the country,
- creating business opportunities for CSC Village Level entrepreneurs (VLEs),
- focussing on women aspirants in these aspirational districts to encourage women entrepreneurship and
- assisting participants to get connected to banking facilities and avail credit facility from banks to set up their own enterprise.
- This is part of the programmatic approach to induce entrepreneurship as dream choice by turning job seekers as job creators.
- Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), is the Principal Financial Institution for the Promotion, Financing, Development, and Coordination of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) sector.
- SIDBI, under its revamped strategy SIDBI 2.0, has adopted the theme of ease of access to MSEs and being Impact Multiplier & Digital Aggregator.
- Recently, the rejuvenated lake and illumination of Purana Qila (Delhi) was inaugurated and opened for public.
- Earlier National Green Tribunal had rejected the the claim that the project was being undertaken in a manner that would damage the environment by permitting the revival of the iconic Purana Qila lake.
- Purana Qila is one of the oldest forts belonging to Mughal era.
- The massive gateway and walls of Purana Qila were built by Humayun and the foundation was laid for the new capital, Dinpanah.
- The work was carried forward by Sher Shah Suri,who displaced Humayun.
- The walls of the Purana Quila are made of enormous red stones having minimal ornamentation and decoration.
- The major attractions inside the fort are the Qila-i-Kuhna mosque of Sher Shah Suri, Sher Mandal (a tower, which is traditionally associated with the death of Humayun), a stepwell and the remains of the extensive rampart, which has three gates.
- The Qila-I-kunha Mosque is an example of Indo Islamic architecture.
- The unique features of Indo-Islamic architecture like horseshoe-shaped arches, bracketed openings, marble inlay, carving etc are very prominent in the structure.
- The mehrabs (prayer niches) inside the Qila-i-Kunha mosque are richly ornamented with concentric arches.
- The mosque has an inscription which says 'As long as there are people on this earth, may this edifice be frequented, and people be happy in it.'
- Excavations have revealed that the Purana Quila stands at the site of Indraprastha, the capital of the Pandavas.
- Excavations near one of the walls of the fort show that the site had been occupied since 1000 B.C.
- The PGW (Painted Gray Ware Pottery) recovered from the site date back to around 1000 B.C.