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Important Facts For Prelims

Guru Gobind Singh

  • 20 Jan 2021
  • 2 min read

Why in News

Recently, the Prime Minister paid homage to Guru Gobind Singh on his birth anniversary.

Key Points

  • About:
    • The last of the ten Sikh Gurus, Guru Gobind Singh was born on 22nd December, 1666 in Patna, Bihar.
      • His birth anniversary is based on the Nanakshahi calendar according to which it will fall on January 20 in 2021 while for the last year, it was celebrated on January 2.
    • He became the Sikh guru at the age of nine, following the demise of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru.
    • He was assassinated in 1708.
  • Contributions:
    • Religious:
      • He is known for his significant contributions to the Sikh religion, including the introduction of the turban to cover hair.
      • He also founded the principles of Khalsa or the Five ‘K’s.
        • The Five K’s are kesh (uncut hair), kanga (wooden comb), kara (iron or steel bracelet), kirpan (dagger) and kachera (short breeches).
        • These were the five articles of faith that a Khalsa must always adorn.
      • He also laid down many other rules for the Khalsa warriors to follow like abstaining from tobacco, alcohol, halal meat, etc. The Khalsa warrior was also duty-bound to protect innocent people from persecution.
      • He named Guru Granth Sahib, the religious text of the Khalsas and the Sikhs, as the next Guru of the two communities.
    • Martial:
      • He fought against the Mughals in the battle of Muktsar in 1705.
      • In the Battle of Anandpur (1704), the Guru lost his mother and two minor sons who were executed. His eldest son also died in battle.
    • Literary:
      • His literary contributions include the Jaap Sahib, Benti Chaupai, Amrit Savaiye, etc.
      • He also wrote the Zafarnama which was a letter to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.


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