Gottiprolu- An Early Trade Centre of Andhra Pradesh
Why in News?
- The site lies on the right bank of a distributary of river Swarnamukhi.
- The proximity of the site (at southern coastal location) to the seacoast suggests that the site could have served as a strategic settlement involved in maritime trade.
- Detailed topographical studies have identified an early historic settlement surrounded by a fortification and the possibility of a moat encircling it.
- Sculpture- Life-size buried Vishnu sculpture with following specifications:
- Four-armed Vishnu standing over a pedestal,
- Carrying chakra and conch in his upper right and left hands respectively.
- The lower right is in bestowing boon position and the left hand in ‘Katihastha’ (resting on the hip) posture.
- Features like the elaborate headgear, thick holy thread, and decorative drapery dates it back to the Pallava period (c. 8th cent. AD).
- Pottery- conical jars that are considered to be imitated variety of Roman Amphorae jars (ancient Greek or Roman jar/ jug used to transport liquid commodities).
- These settlements could have been an important trade centre due to the presence of imitated amphorae wares.
- The conical jars of broken terracotta pipes found fitted into one another revealed about the civic amenities and drainage system pattern maintained by the occupants at the site.
- The ceramic assemblage of the site consisted of fine quality black and redwares collected from the conical jars, russet coated ware, etc.
- Brick-built structures in different sizes and forms like elliptical, circular, rectangular, and curvilinear pattern.
- The size of bricks can be compared to those found in the Satavahana/Ikshvaku period structures in the Krishna valley viz. Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda.
- This dates back the site to the 2nd century to 1st century BC.
- Molded female terracotta figurine- with two hands lifted upwards.
- Varied stone tools of Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods were also found which suggest that prehistoric people also occupied this area.
- Other major retrieved antiquities unearthed are copper and lead coins, iron spearhead, stone celts, terracotta beads, ear stud in semi-precious stone and hopscotches.
- Important Remnants of the Site: fortified early historic settlement at Puduru, Sunbrahmanya temple at Mallam, unique rock-cut laterite stepped well at Yakasiri, Vishnu temple at Tirumuru.