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G20 Education Ministers’ Meeting

  • 03 Sep 2022
  • 6 min read

For Prelims: G20, International Organization, India and International Groupings

For Mains: India’s foreign policy, Significance of G20 in India’s Foreign Policy, Challenges of global happenings on international groupings

Why in News?

Recently, the Minister of Education addressed the G-20 Education Ministers’ Meeting in Bali, Indonesia.

  • Theme: Recovery, Re-imagine and Rebuild Stronger.
  • The G20 presidency is scheduled to move from Indonesia to India in December 2022.

What are the Key Highlights?

  • Emphasized on the importance of sharing mutual experiences & working together to create a new world in which education remains the nodal point for addressing common challenges.
  • The National Education Policy 2020, based on the foundational principles of access, equity, quality, affordability and accountability is India’s guiding light for promoting lifelong learning opportunities and achieving the shared vision of G20.
  • Highlighted India’s rapid strides towards building a more resilient and inclusive education and skilling ecosystem and realising the creative potential of each learner through the implementation of NEP 2020.
  • India is giving special emphasis on formalizing early childhood care & education, supporting differently-abled children, boosting digital and multi-modal learning, flexible entry-exit pathways, integrating education with skills, which are keys to improve learning outcomes.

What is G20?

  • About:
    • It is a group of 19 countries and the European Union (EU), founded in 1999, with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
      • Its members are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the EU.
      • Nigeria was meant to be the “20th” member and was dropped at the last minute due to political troubles at the time.
    • The membership comprises a mix of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population.
    • The G20 holds a strategic role in securing future global economic growth and prosperity.
    • Together, the G20 members represent more than 80% of world GDP, 75% of international trade and 60% of the world population.
  • Functioning of G20:
    • The G-20 has no fixed headquarters, and the secretariat moves by rotation between the countries hosting or assuming Presidency of the grouping each year.
    • The members are divided into five groups (India is in Group 2, along with Russia, South Africa and Turkey).
    • The G-20 agenda that still depends heavily on the guidance of Finance Ministers and central Governors is finalised by a unique system of ‘Sherpas’, who are special envoys of G-20 leaders.
    • Another feature of the G-20 is ‘Troika’ meetings, comprising the countries presiding over the G-20 in the past year, present year, and next year. At present, the Troika is made up of Italy, Indonesia and India.

How has the G20 Evolved over the years?

  • The Global Financial Crisis (2007-08) cemented G20’s reputation as the premier crisis management and coordination body.
  • The US, which held the G20 Presidency in 2008, elevated the meeting of the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to Heads of State, resulting in the first G20 Summit.
  • The Summits in Washington DC, London, and Pittsburgh set the scene for some of the most durable global reforms:
    • Blacklisting states in an effort to tackle tax evasion and avoidance, provisioning stricter controls on hedge funds and rating agencies, making the Financial Stability Board an effective supervisory and watchdog body for the global financial system, proposing stricter regulations for too-big-to fail banks, refraining members from imposing new barriers to trade etc.
  • By the time Covid-19 struck, the G20 had wandered off from its original mission and G20 lost its focus.
  • In recent times, G20 members have made all the right commitments after the pandemic, but there is little to show in action.
    • At the Riyadh Summit in October 2020, they prioritised four things: fighting the pandemic, safeguarding the global economy, addressing international trade disruptions, and enhancing global cooperation.
    • The Italian Presidency in 2021 had focused on three broad, interconnected pillars of action — People, Planet, Prosperity — vowing to take the lead in ensuring a swift international response to the pandemic.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q. In which one of the following groups are all the four countries members of G20? (2020)

(a) Argentina, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey

(b) Australia, Canada, Malaysia and New Zealand

(c) Brazil, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam

(d) Indonesia, Japan, Singapore and South Korea

Ans: (a)

Source: HT

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