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Need for a National Crisis Management Response Framework

  • 20 Oct 2023
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: National Security Guard, Israel-Palestine

For Mains: Security Challenges and their Management, Security Forces & Their Mandate, National Security Guard

Source: TH

Why in News?

In light of the recent attack in Israel, India's National Security Guard Director has stressed the importance of building a crisis management response framework for extreme terrorist scenarios.

What is the Need for a National Crisis Management Response Framework?

  • Preparedness for Unpredictable Threats:
    • Extreme terrorist scenarios often unfold with little warning, necessitating a well-defined preparedness strategy.
    • A crisis management framework ensures that authorities are equipped to handle unexpected security challenges.
      • Coordination among various agencies, both at the federal and state levels, is crucial in countering terrorism effectively.
    • The framework will establish clear protocols for collaboration and communication during crises.
  • Mitigating Impact:
    • Rapid and well-coordinated responses can significantly reduce the impact of terrorist incidents, minimizing casualties and damage.
    • A structured crisis management framework provides guidance on mitigation strategies.
  • Safeguarding Critical Infrastructure:
    • Terrorists frequently target critical infrastructure, endangering national security.
      • The framework should incorporate measures to protect vital infrastructure during a crisis, ultimately enhancing national security by comprehensively addressing extreme terrorist scenarios.
      • This framework will be a crucial component of the nation's security infrastructure, ensuring resilience against evolving threats.
  • Enhancing Counterterrorism Capabilities:
    • The framework encourages continuous training and skill development for personnel involved in counterterrorism efforts.
      • Ongoing investment in skills and capabilities ensures that responders remain at the forefront of their craft.
    • The framework should acknowledge the synergy between advanced technology and highly skilled personnel. However, it's the combination of individuals and weaponry that ultimately makes the decisive difference, despite technological advancements.
  • Border Security Challenges:
    • India's immense landmass and its strategic location in Southern Asia give rise to significant security concerns.
      • India's 7,683 km coastline and a vast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) necessitate robust maritime security measures.
      • With over 15,000 km of land borders shared with seven countries, including challenging borders with China and Pakistan, the demand for effective border management is paramount.
      • Porous borders and challenging terrain add complexity to security. Issues include cross-border terrorism, militant infiltration/exfiltration, and the rise of non-state actors.
    • The above-mentioned challenges underscore the need for a comprehensive national crisis management framework.

What is the National Security Guard?

  • About:
    • NSG is a Federal Contingency World Class Zero Error Force that deals with anti-terrorist activities in all manifestations.
    • The NSG is a Force specially equipped and trained to deal with specific situations and is therefore, to be used only in exceptional circumstances to thwart serious acts of terrorism.
    • NSG formally came into existence in 1986 by an act of Parliament- ‘National Security Guard Act, 1986’.
  • Vision:
    • A World Class Zero Error Force.
  • Mission:
    • "Train, equip, and maintain in readiness a special force capable of swiftly and effectively combating terrorism to uphold its motto of 'Sarvatra Sarvottam Suraksha'.
  • Functioning:
    • It operates under the Ministry of Home Affairs and is a task-oriented force that has two complementary elements in the form of
      • Special Action Group (SAG) comprising of the Army personnel- is the main offensive or the strike wing of the NSG, and
      • Special Ranger Groups (SRG) comprising of personnel drawn from the Central Armed Police Forces/State Police Forces. They generally handle VIP securities.
      • The head of NSG- designated as Director General (DG), is selected and appointed by the Minister of Home Affairs.
  • Operations undertaken:
    • Operation Black Thunder (Golden Temple, Amritsar, 1986 & 1988).
    • Operation Ashwamedh (Indian Airlines Flight-IC427 hijacking, India, 1993).
    • Operation Thunderbolt or Vajra Shakti (Akshardham Temple attack, Gujarat, 2002).
    • Operation Black Tornado (Mumbai Blasts, 2008).
    • Operation Dhangu Suraksha, Pathankot, 2016.
  • NSG Headquarters: Manesar, Gurugram.
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