###### Science & Technology

## National Mathematics Day

- 22 Dec 2022
- 4 min read

**Prelims:** Srinivasa Ramanujan, Critical Thinking, UNESCO, Ramanujan number.

**Mains:** Contributions of Srinivasa Ramanujan, Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology

### Why in News?

**National Mathematics Day (NMD)** has been celebrated every year on **22 ^{nd} December** to mark the birth anniversary of

**Srinivasa Ramanujan**.

- On the 125
^{th}birth anniversary of Ramanujan, NMD was announced by the**then-Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh**in 2012. - The day is celebrated annually with the aim to
**make people aware of the importance of mathematics**and advancements and developments made in the field.

### Who was Srinivasa Ramanujan?

**About:**- Born on
**22**in Erode, Tamil Nadu.^{nd}December, 1887 **In 1903,**he secured a scholarship to the**University of Madras**but lost it the following year because he neglected all other subjects in pursuit of mathematics.- In 1911, Ramanujan published the first of his papers in the
**Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society.** **In 1913,**he began a correspondence with the**British mathematician Godfrey H. Hardy**which led to a special scholarship from the University of Madras and a grant from Trinity College, Cambridge.**In 1918,**he was elected to the Royal Society of London.- Ramanujan was one of the youngest members of Britain's Royal Society and the
**first Indian to be elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge University.**

- Born on

**Contributions to Mathematics:****Formulas and Equations:**- Ramanujan compiled around
**3,900 results consisting of equations and identities.**One of his most treasured findings was his infinite series for Pi. - He gave several formulas to calculate the digits of Pi in many unconventional ways.

- Ramanujan compiled around
**Game Theory:**- He discovered a
**long list of new ideas to solve many challenging mathematical problems,**which gave a significant impetus to the development of game theory. - His contribution to
**game theory is purely based on intuition and natural talent**and remains unrivalled to this day.

- He discovered a
**Ramanujan’s Book:**- One of Ramanujan’s notebooks was
**discovered by George Andrews in 1976**in the library at Trinity College. Later the contents of this notebook were published as a book.

- One of Ramanujan’s notebooks was
**Ramanujan number:**- 1729 is known as the Ramanujan number.
- It is the
**smallest number which can be expressed as the sum of two different cubes**in two different ways.- 1729 is the sum of the cubes of 10 and 9 - cube of 10 is 1000 and cube of 9 is 729 adding the two numbers results in 1729.
- 1729 is also the sum of the cubes of 12 and 1, cube of 12 is 1728 and cube of 1 is 1 adding the two results in 1729.

**Other Contributions:**- Ramanujan’s
**other notable contributions include hypergeometric series,**the Riemann series, the elliptic integrals, mock theta function, the theory of divergent series, and the**functional equations of the zeta function.**

- Ramanujan’s
**Death:**He died on April 26^{th}, 1920, at the age of 32, just after returning to India after a long illness.

### UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)

**Q. A recent movie titled The Man Who Knew Infinity is based on the biography of (2016)**

**(a)** S. Ramanujan **(b)** S. Chandrasekhar **(c)** S.N. Bose **(d)** C.V. Raman

**Ans: (a)**

**Exp:**

- ‘The Man Who Knew Infinity’ is a movie based on the biography of S. Ramanujan (1887-1920), an Indian mathematician, known for his immense contribution in mathematical analysis. He was a fellow of the Royal Society.
- Therefore, option (a) is the correct answer.