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Important Facts For Prelims

Important Facts For Prelims (16th May 2019)

  • 16 May 2019
  • 2 min read

Voynich Manuscript

  • Gerard Cheshire, a researcher at the University of Bristol has recently deciphered a 600-year-old manuscript written in Voynich.
  • The researcher has claimed Voynich to be the only known example of proto-Roman language.
  • The language used was widespread in the Mediterranean during the medieval period, but it was seldom written in official or important documents because Latin was the language of royalty, church and government. As a result, proto-Roman was lost from the record.
  • The Voynich Manuscript was dated to the 15th century (1404-38), is written on vellum (a type of parchment paper made from the skin of a lamb, goat, or calf) with text and illustrations.
  • The manuscript was compiled by Dominican nuns as a source of reference for Maria of Castile, Queen of Aragon — an autonomous community in Spain.


  • SPARROW stands for Smart Performance Appraisal Report Recording Online Window.
    • It is an online writing of Annual Performance Appraisal Report (APAR).
  • It is launched for over 46,000 group B and group C officers of Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs (CBIC), Ministry of Finance, working in its various formations all across the country.
    • Online writing of APARS in SPARROW for Indian Revenue Services (C and CE) officers has already been implemented with effect from 2016-2017.
  • It will ensure transparency in promotions and posting in government jobs and a step towards good governance.
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