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Global Terrorism Index 2023

  • 21 Mar 2023
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: Institute for Economics & Peace, United Nations Security Council, Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT).

For Mains: Global Terrorism Index (GTI), Major Challenges Related to Terrorism Globally.

Why in News?

India ranks 13th on The Global Terrorism Index (GTI). The report shows that Afghanistan continues to be the country most affected by terrorism for the 4th year in a row, even though attacks and deaths decreased.

What are the Major Highlights of the GTI?

  • The GTI report is produced by the Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP), a think tank, using data from TerrorismTracker and other sources.
    • Terrorism Tracker provides event records on terrorist attacks since 1 January 2007.
    • The dataset contains almost 66,000 terrorist incidents for the period 2007 to 2022.
  • Globally, deaths from terrorism fell by 9% to 6,701 deaths, marking a 38% decrease from its peak in 2015.
  • Pakistan recorded the second largest surge in terror-related deaths worldwide in 2022, the toll increasing significantly to 643.
  • South Asia remains the region with the worst average GTI score.
    • South Asia recorded 1,354 deaths from terrorism in 2022.
  • Islamic State (IS) and its affiliates were the deadliest terror group globally for the eighth consecutive year, recording the most attacks and deaths of any group in 2022.

What are the Major Challenges Related to Terrorism Globally?

  • Terror Financing: According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, criminals are estimated to launder up to four trillion dollars a year. Fund movements by terrorists have also been concealed through charities and alternative remittance methods.
    • It taints the international financial system and erodes public trust in the integrity of the system.
  • Politicisation of Countering Terrorism: The members of the United Nations Security Council (P5) have exercised the veto power to varying degrees when it comes to identifying terrorists.
    • Also, absence of universally accepted definitions for what constitutes terrorism provides terrorists with an edge and allows some countries to remain silent and veto any action at global institutions.
  • Use of Emerging Technology by Terrorists: Innovations in computing and telecommunications like widespread internet access, end-to-end encryption, and virtual private network (VPN) have made new types of operations possible for a higher number of radicalised individuals across the globe, contributing to the threat.

Way Forward

  • Re-energizing Counter Terrorism Agenda: It is necessary to re-energize the global agenda of counter-terrorism by emphasising the need for unity, and checking the veto power of P5 when it comes to identifying terrorists worldwide.
  • Adopting a Universal Definition of Terrorism: A universal definition of terrorism is needed so that all members of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) can incorporate it into their own criminal laws, banning terror groups, prosecuting terrorists under special laws, and making cross-border terrorism an extraditable offence worldwide.
  • Curbing Terror Funding: There is a need for stronger laws that require banks to perform due diligence on clients and to report suspicious transactions to prevent terrorism.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Question (PYQ)

Prelims

Q. Hand-in-Hand 2007’ a joint anti-terrorism military training was held by the officers of the Indian Army and officers of the Army of which one of the following countries? (2008)

(a) China
(b) Japan
(c) Russia
(d) USA

Ans: (a)


Mains

Q. The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding? (2017)

Source: IE

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