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  • 20 Nov 2020 GS Paper 3 Disaster Management

    What are the targets and priority areas under the Sendai Declaration by the year 2030? Discuss the efforts made by the Government of India in this direction. (250 words)

    Approach
    • In the introduction give a brief about the Sendai Framework.
    • Enumerate the targets and the primary areas covered under the Sendai Declaration to be achieved by the year 2030.
    • Discuss the steps taken by the government in meeting the said targets.
    • Give a suitable conclusion

    Introduction

    • Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted at the Third UN World Conference in Sendai, Japan, on March 18, 2015 as the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015.
    • It is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations, including India, will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis.

    Body

    Global targets

    • Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015
    • Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030
    • Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to GDP
    • Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services
    • Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020
    • Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries
    • Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments

    Priority Areas under Sendai Framework

    • Understanding disaster risk,
    • Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk,
    • Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience,
    • Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

    Steps Taken by Government of India

    • Though it is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations, including India, will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis.
      • India is making all efforts to contribute to the realization of the global targets by improving the entire disaster management cycle in India by following the recommendations in the Sendai Framework and by adopting globally accepted best practices.
    • India has put the Sendai framework in operation. In 2016, India released the country’s first ever National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), a document based on the Sendai Framework. India is committed to achieving the targets.
      • The uniqueness of this plan rests on the fact that it is totally aligned with the targets and priorities of the Sendai Framework. By launching this plan, India has also shown the way in the implementation of the Sendai Framework at the sub-national levels, which can be replicated by other countries across the world.
    • Asian ministerial conference for disaster risk reduction (AMCDRR) is an intergovernmental conference held to discuss disaster mitigation. Its inaugural meeting was held in New Delhi, in November 2016, after the introduction of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. It’s objectives are-
      • Transforming the commitments made in Sendai by the governments into visible action.
      • Deciding the direction for implementation and monitoring of the Sendai Framework.

    Conclusion

    • Educating people in Disaster Risk Reduction is the need of the hour and it can be done through decentralised planning, implementation and monitoring and control.
    • The major strategies which should get prominence are institutionalising national systems and capacities, strengthening governance mechanisms at local level, building community resilience, reducing the vulnerabilities of the communities at risk and public private people partnerships etc.
    • Disaster Management has to embark upon a strategy aimed at holistic human development integrating the sustainable development goals, policies and practices that harness people’s strengths instead of vulnerabilities.
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