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  • 20 Nov 2020 GS Paper 3 Disaster Management

    There is an increase in frequency and intensity of cyclones in India. Discuss the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project in this context. (150 words)

    • Explain the given statement by giving data/facts about hazards of cyclones in India.
    • Briefly highlight the reasons for the increase in frequency and intensity of cyclones in India.
    • Discuss the role of the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project in management of hazards of cyclones.
    • Write a coherent conclusion.


    • Of India's 7,500 kilometre coastline, almost 5,700 kilometres are highly vulnerable to the impacts of tropical cyclones and related hydro-meteorological hazards and consequently to recurrent loss of life and properties. Approximately 40 percent of the total population in the maritime states, lives within 100 kms of coastlines.


    Reasons for Increasing Frequency and Intensity of Cyclones

    • Global increase in tropical cyclones: One study found that the chances of major tropical storms forming increased globally by 6 percent in each of the last four decades.
      • A second shows the biggest increase in frequency in already storm-battered areas, including Indian Ocean Region,Florida, the Bahamas, eastern Africa, Japan, China and the Philippine Islands.
    • Global Warming: Main reason for the increase in frequency and intensity is climate change and global warming.
      • Overheated oceans caused by global warming are super-charging tropical storms, but year-to-year variations are also affected by short-term climate cycles like El Niño and other local effects like Monsoon in Indian Ocean.

    National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project

    • Facilitates hazard risk management: It is now well recognized that by taking long and short term mitigation measures, the loss of life and properties can be minimized. Hazard risk mitigation is a key to sustainable development and this has been the policy of Govt. of India which lays greater emphasis on prevention, preparation and mitigation.
    • Establishes structural measures for mitigation: The central government has initiated the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) with a view to address cyclone risks in the country. The overall objective of the project is to undertake suitable structural and non-structural measures to mitigate the effects of cyclones in the coastal states and UTs of India.
    • Maps cyclone prone areas: The Project has identified 13 cyclone prone States and Union Territories (UTs), with varying levels of vulnerability. These States/UT have further been classified into two categories, based on the frequency of occurrence of cyclones, size of population and the existing institutional mechanism for disaster management.
      • There are 13 coastal states/UTs encompassing 84 coastal districts which are affected by cyclones. Four States (Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal) and one UT (Pondicherry) on the East Coast and One State (Gujarat) on the West Coast are more vulnerable to cyclone disasters. In recent times cyclones Titli, Gaza, Pethai have hit India with varying intensity.


    Thus, the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project is an important step in disaster preparedness. However, a lot more is to be done to overhaul the mitigation in each step of course of the action plan- early warning, mitigation, response, awareness generation and capacity development.

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