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Committee to Look Net Neutrality Issue
Apr 17, 2015

After feeling the heat of the raging debate, Union Telecom ministry announced setting up of a 6-member panel to recommend a framework for Net Neutrality. The expert committee has been asked to submit its report on the subject within a month. The panel is asked to study its benefits and limitations, including regulatory and technical issues.

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has also initiated the process of putting in place guidelines for the Net Neutrality in India.

What is Net Neutrality & Why it is Important?

Net neutrality is an idea derived from how telephone lines have worked since the beginning of the 20th century.

 

  • In case of a telephone line, you can dial any number and connect to it. It does not matter if you are calling from operator A to operator B. It doesn't matter if you are calling a restaurant or a drug dealer.

  • The operators neither block the access to a number nor deliberately delay connection to a particular number, unless forced by the law.

  • Most of the countries have rules that ask telecom operators to provide an unfiltered and unrestricted phone service.

  • When the Internet started to take off in 1980s and 1990s, there were no specific rules that asked that Internet Service Providers (ISPs) should follow the same principle. But, mostly because telecom operators were also ISPs, they adhered to the same principle.

  • This principle is known as net neutrality. An ISP does not control the traffic that passes its servers. When a web user connects to a website or web service, he or she gets the same speed. Data rate for Youtube videos and Facebook photos is theoretically same.

  • Users can access any legal website or web service without any interference from an ISP.

Net neutrality has shaped the internet in two fundamental ways.

1. One, web users are free to connect to whatever website or service they want. ISPs do not bother with what kind of content is flowing from their servers. This has allowed the internet to grow into a truly global network and has allowed people to freely express themselves. For example, you can criticize your ISP on a blog post and the ISP will not restrict access to that post for its other subscribers even though the post may harm its business.

2. But more importantly, net neutrality has enabled a level playing field on the Internet. To start a website, you don't need lot of money or connections. Just host your website and you are good to go. If your service is good, it will find favour with web users. Unlike the cable TV where you have to forge alliances with cable connection providers to make sure that your channel reaches viewers, on Internet you don't have to talk to ISPs to put your website online.

What if No Net neutrality?

If there is no net neutrality, ISPs will have the power to shape internet traffic so that they can derive extra benefit from it. For example, several ISPs believe that they should be allowed to charge companies for services like YouTube and Netflix because these services consume more bandwidth compared to a normal website. Basically, these ISPs want a share in the money that YouTube or Netflix make.

  • Without net neutrality, the Internet as we know it will not exist.

  • Instead of free access, there could be package plans for consumers. For example, if you pay Rs 500, you will only be able to access websites based in India. To access international websites, you may have to pay a more.

  • Maybe there can be different connection speed for different type of content, depending on how much you are paying for the service and what add-on package you have bought.

  • Lack of net neutrality will also spell doom for innovation on the web.
  • It is possible that ISPs will charge web companies to enable faster access to their websites.

  • Those who don't pay may see that their websites will open slowly. 

Legally, the concept of net neutrality doesn't exist in India. TRAI, which regulates the Telecom industry, has tried to come up with some rules regarding net neutrality several times. It invited comments on the concept of net neutrality from industry bodies and stakeholders in 2006. But no formal rules have been formed to uphold and enforce net neutrality. However, despite lack of formal rules, ISPs in India mostly adhere to the principal of net neutrality. There have been some incidents where Indian ISPs have ignored net neutrality but these are few and far between.

 

 


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