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State PCS

Madhya Pradesh State PCS

  • 20 Apr 2024
  • 2 min read
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Impact of the Forest Rights Act on Land Conflicts

Why in News?

Recently, Land Conflict Watch, a data research agency, tracking land-related conflicts in India, has noted a significant correlation between land conflicts and the enforcement of the Forest Rights Act (FRA) 2006.

Key Points

  • FRA enacted in 2006 recognises the rights of forest-dwelling tribal communities and other traditional forest dwellers to forest resources on which these communities were dependent for a variety of needs, including livelihood, habitation and other sociocultural needs.
  • Out of the 781 conflicts documented in the Land Conflict Watch (LCW) database, a subset of 264 conflicts has been closely linked to parliamentary constituencies where the Forest Rights Act (FRA) is an important issue.
  • These constituencies are commonly referred to as ‘FRA constituencies’ based on the People’s Forest report (by Centre for Science and Environment).
  • Maharashtra, Odisha, and Madhya Pradesh have the highest number of core FRA constituencies.
  • The states with the most forest rights issues in critical FRA constituencies are Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Status of Implementation of FRA

  • Titles Accorded: As of February 2024, approximately 2.45 million titles have been granted to tribal and forest dwellers.
    • However, out of five million claims received, about 34% have been rejected.
  • Recognition Rate: Despite the vast potential, the actual recognition of forest rights has been limited. As of 31st August 2021, only 14.75% of the minimum potential forest areas eligible for forest rights have been recognised since the FRA came into force.
  • State Variations:
    • Andhra Pradesh: Recognized 23% of its minimum potential forest claim.
    • Jharkhand: Recognized only 5% of its minimum potential forest area.
    • Intra-State Variations: Even within states, recognition rates vary. For instance, in Odisha, while the district of Nabarangapur achieved a 100% IFR recognition rate, Sambalpur’s rate stands at 41.34%.

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