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State PCS

Uttarakhand State PCS

  • 13 Aug 2022
  • 8 min read
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Uttarakhand Switch to Hindi

The Friendly Bacteria of The River Ganges are being Extinct

Why in News?

  • Recently, research by scientists of the Wildlife Institute of India has revealed that the friendly bacteria (micro invertebrates) that make the water of the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi (the tributaries of the Ganges) healthful are rapidly becoming extinct due to pollution.

Key Points

  • Under the supervision of senior scientist Dr. VP Uniyal, Dr. Nikhil Singh and others examined the friendly bacteria (micro invertebrates) at different places in both the rivers. Under the 'National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)', the scientists conducted studies in the Alaknanda river from Mana (Badrinath) to Devprayag and in the Bhagirathi river from Gomukh to Devprayag.
  • Research by scientists has shown that in Bhagirathi river from Gomukh to Devprayag, either friendly bacteria are completely missing or their number is very less. The same situation has been found in the Alaknanda river from Mana to Devprayag. The low occurrence of micro invertebrates in both the rivers indicates that the water quality is not good here.
  • The friendly bacteria in both the rivers were studied on the parameters of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT). If the EPT index is found to be 20 percent in the water of a river, then it proves that the water quality is fine. If the EPT index is more than 30%, it means that the water quality is very good. However, at many places in both the rivers, the index of EPT has been found to be less than 15 per cent, which is a worrying aspect.
  • In the research done by hydrologists in the past, it has come to the fore that a bacteria called Batriaphos is found in the Ganges water, which keeps on eating the undesirable substances produced by chemical reactions inside the Ganges water. This maintains the purity of Gangajal.
  • According to scientists, due to the presence of a lot of sulfur in Gangajal, its purity remains and Gangajal does not get spoiled for a long time.
  • Scientific research has also revealed that other rivers of the country are able to clean themselves after a flow of fifteen to twenty km and the dirt found in the rivers gets deposited in the foothills of the rivers, but the Ganges cleans itself in the flow of only one km.
  • Along with the all-weather road, the debris of the massive development works being carried out on the banks of the rivers is being dumped directly into the rivers. The dirty water coming out of the houses of the cities situated on the banks of the rivers is being discharged into the rivers without treatment.
  • According to scientists, Ganga water has a very high capacity to absorb oxygen from the atmosphere as compared to the water of other rivers. Compared to other rivers, the capacity of digesting dirt in the Ganges is found to be 20 times more.
  • It is noteworthy that 140 species of fish including dolphins, 35 species of reptiles and 42 species of mammals are found in the Ganges River. The Bhagirathi, Alaknanda, Mahakali, Karnali, Kosi, Gandak, Sarayu, Yamuna, Son and Mahananda are the main tributaries of the Ganges.

Uttarakhand Switch to Hindi

In Devidhura, Bagwal Full of Adventures Played with Fruits and Flowers

Why in News?

  • On August 12, 2022, in Champawat district of Uttarakhand, the world famous Bagwal fair with fruits and flowers was organized at Kholikhand Dubachaud ground of Devidhura, Dham of Mother Varahi. The warriors of Charkham (Chamyal, Gahadwal, Lamgadiya, Walig) and seven Thok joined the Bagwal.

Key Points

  • The famous Bagwal fair, which is held on the day of Rakshabandhan, is also called 'Pathar Maar' fair at 'Maa Varahi Temple' in the famous Devidhura of Champawat district. Lakhs of devotees from all over the country and abroad reach Devidhura to see this fair.
  • It is believed that this game of Bagwal in Devidhura has been going on since mythological times. Some consider it to be a traditional festival from the Katyur regime, while others associate it with Kali Kumaon.
  • According to popular beliefs, in the mythological period, there was a custom of offering male sacrifices by the people of Char Kham to celebrate their Aaradhya Varahi Devi. To please Mother Varahi, a male sacrifice was performed every year from the people of the four Khams. It is said that one year it was the turn of the male sacrifice of the family of an old lady of Chamiyal Kham. Only the old lady and her grandson were alive in the family. The woman praised Mother Varahi for protecting her grandson. Mother Varahi gave darshan to the old lady and gave instructions to play bugwal between the four holes in the temple premises, since then the practice of bagging started.
  • Bagwal fair is held every year on the day of Ashadhi Kauthik (Rakshabandhan) in Kholikhand Dubachaud of Maa Varahi Dham temple in Devidhura of Pati block of Champawat district. Starting from stone, this Bagwal fair is being played with flowers and flowers for the past few years. In addition to the four Khams (Chamyal, Gaharwal, Lamgadiya and Walig) warriors of seven thoks take part in the Bagwal fair, which is held in the presence of lakhs of people.
  • Bagwal Varahi is played in the courtyard of the temple, Kholikhand. It is played by young men and elders of all four circles. Lamgadia and Walig Kham's Ranbankures stand on one side, while Gahadwal and Chamyal Kham's Ranbankures stand on the other side.
  • It is noteworthy that on July 11, 2022, Uttarakhand Chief Minister Pushkar Singh Dhami had declared the famous Devidhura 'Maa Varahi Bagwal Fair' of Champawat as a state fair.


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