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  • 06 Mar 2023 GS Paper 3 Bio-diversity & Environment

    Day 101
    Question 1: UNFCCC and agreement under it became the high-sounding epitomes of promises without delivery. Discuss. (250 words)

    Question 2: Not a single corner of the earth is a natural disaster-proof. Discuss how Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) can act as a mutual hub and spoke model for disaster resilient infrastructure? (250 Words)

    Answer 1


    • Give a brief introduction about UNFCCC.
    • Discuss why it is unable to fulfill its promises.
    • Write a holistic conclusion.


    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is a treaty signed by 197 countries in 1992 with the goal of reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the impacts of climate change. The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015 under the UNFCCC, is an international treaty that aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.


    Why such agreements are unable to fulfill its promises:

    • Despite the promises made under these agreements, it is true that progress towards reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the impacts of climate change has been slow and uneven. Many countries have not fulfilled their commitments to reduce emissions, and the pledges made under the Paris Agreement are not sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets.
    • One of the main reasons for this is the lack of political will and leadership. Many countries are reluctant to take action on climate change because they fear it will hurt their economies or because they believe that other countries will not take similar steps. Additionally, many powerful interest groups, such as the fossil fuel industry, have lobbied against strong climate policies.
    • Another reason for the slow progress is the complexity of the issue. Climate change is a global problem that requires a coordinated effort from all countries, and the solutions are not simple or easy to implement. For example, reducing greenhouse gas emissions requires significant changes to energy systems, transportation, agriculture, and other sectors, and these changes can be costly and disruptive.
    • Despite these challenges, there have been some positive developments. Many countries and cities have set ambitious targets for reducing emissions, and renewable energy technologies have become increasingly cost-competitive. However, it is clear that much more needs to be done to address the threat of climate change, and the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement alone cannot solve this problem without a strong commitment and concerted effort from all countries and sectors of society.


    The UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement have provided a framework for global action on climate change, progress towards their goals has been slow and uneven. The lack of political will and leadership, combined with the complexity of the issue, has hindered progress, and much more needs to be done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the impacts of climate change. The promises made under these agreements must be turned into action if we are to avoid the worst effects of climate change.

    Answer 2


    • Give a brief introduction about natural disasters.
    • Discuss about effectiveness of Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) in creation of disaster resilient infrastructure.
    • Write a holistic and appropriate conclusion.


    • Natural disasters, such as floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and wildfires, can cause significant damage to infrastructure, resulting in loss of life and property. As a result, there is a need for disaster-resilient infrastructure to minimize the impact of these disasters. The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) was launched in 2019 as a global partnership of countries and organizations to promote disaster-resilient infrastructure.


    CDRI can act as a mutual hub and spoke model for disaster-resilient infrastructure in several ways:

    • It can facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration among its members to develop and implement best practices for disaster-resilient infrastructure. This can include sharing data, tools, and technologies to improve infrastructure planning, design, and construction.
    • CDRI can serve as a platform for capacity building and training to improve the skills of infrastructure planners and engineers in disaster-resilient infrastructure. This can involve organizing workshops, training programs, and technical exchanges to share expertise and build local capacity.
    • It can promote the adoption of disaster-resilient infrastructure standards and codes, which can help ensure that infrastructure projects are designed and constructed to withstand natural disasters. This can involve working with national and local governments to develop and implement disaster-resilient infrastructure policies and regulations.
    • CDRI can support the development of innovative financing mechanisms to fund disaster-resilient infrastructure projects. This can include working with multilateral development banks, private sector investors, and other stakeholders to mobilize financing for infrastructure projects that incorporate disaster resilience.
    • It can serve as a global advocate for disaster-resilient infrastructure, raising awareness of the importance of this issue among policymakers, stakeholders, and the general public. This can involve conducting research, producing reports, and engaging in public outreach and education activities to promote disaster-resilient infrastructure.


    CDRI can act as a mutual hub and spoke model for disaster-resilient infrastructure by facilitating knowledge sharing, capacity building, standard setting, innovative financing, and global advocacy. By working together, CDRI members can promote the development of infrastructure that is resilient to natural disasters and help reduce the impact of these disasters on people and communities around the world.

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