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State PCS

Sambhav-2023

  • 27 Jan 2023 GS Paper 1 Geography

    Day 69

    Question 1: Discuss the relief of the ocean floor. Also mention the factors that affect salinity distribution in the oceans. (250 Words)

    Question 2: Streams are horizontal movement of water, but the tides bring vertical movement. What do you understand by tides and its importance? (250 Words)

    Answer 1

    Approach

    • Start answering with the introduction of the ocean floor.
    • Explain the factors affecting the salinity distribution in the ocean.
    • Write a holistic and appropriate conclusion.

    Introduction

    • The relief of the ocean floor refers to the variations in elevation or depth found on the surface of the seafloor.
    • It includes features such as underwater mountains, valleys, and canyons. The mid-Atlantic Ridge, for example, is a large underwater mountain range that runs down the center of the Atlantic Ocean. The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the ocean, with a depth of nearly 36,000 feet. The study of the relief of the ocean floor is known as bathymetry, and it is an important area of research in oceanography.

    Body

    Several factors affect the distribution of salinity in the oceans, including:

    • Evaporation and precipitation: Salinity is higher in areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation and lower in areas where precipitation exceeds evaporation. For example, salinity is higher in the tropical and subtropical regions, where evaporation is high and precipitation is low.
    • River inflow: Rivers bring freshwater into the ocean, which dilutes the salt content and lowers salinity.
    • Temperature: Cold water can hold more dissolved salts than warm water, so salinity is higher in colder waters.
    • Ocean currents: Ocean currents can transport water with different salinities, affecting the distribution of salinity in different areas.
    • Sea ice formation: When Sea ice forms, salt is left behind in the remaining seawater, increasing the salinity.
    • Upwelling: Upwelling, the process by which deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water rises to the surface, can also affect the salinity distribution.
    • Human activities: Human activities such as irrigation, damming of rivers, and desalination plants can also affect the salinity of the ocean.

    Conclusion

    The relief of the ocean floor refers to the variations in elevation or depth found on the surface of the seafloor and the study of these features is known as bathymetry. The relief of the ocean floor is important in understanding the geology of the ocean floor and the processes that shape it. Salinity distribution in the oceans is affected by several factors such as evaporation and precipitation, river inflow, temperature, ocean currents, sea ice formation, upwelling, and human activities. Understanding these factors and their interactions is important for understanding oceanography and the Earth's environment as a whole.


    Answer 2

    Approach

    • Start answering with the introduction of streams and tides.
    • Discuss the formation of tides and their importance.
    • Write a holistic and appropriate conclusion.

    Introduction

    • Streams, also known as rivers or creeks, are a form of horizontal movement of water that flow in a single direction. They are typically fed by sources such as precipitation, groundwater, and melting snow or ice. As the water flows, it erodes the land, carving channels and shaping the landscape.
    • Tides are a form of vertical movement of water that occur in oceans, seas and other large bodies of water.

    Body

    • Streams:
      • Streams can vary in size and flow rate, from small, seasonal creeks to large, perennial rivers that flow year-round.
      • Streams also play an important role in the ecosystem, providing habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals, and supporting many ecological processes.
      • They also play an important role in human society, providing water for irrigation, drinking, and industrial uses, and serving as a source of recreation and tourism.
      • Streams are also used to generate hydroelectric power by using the kinetic energy of the flowing water to turn turbines and generate electricity.
      • Overall, streams are an important component of the hydrologic cycle, and play a vital role in shaping the Earth's landscape and supporting life.
    • Tides:
      • Tides are a form of vertical movement of water that occur in oceans, seas and other large bodies of water.
      • They are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun on the Earth's oceans.
      • The gravitational pull of the moon is stronger on the side of the Earth closest to it, which causes the water to bulge out and form a high tide.
      • On the opposite side of the Earth, the gravitational pull is weaker, which causes the water to recede and form a low tide.
      • The gravitational pull of the sun also plays a role in tides, but its effect is weaker than that of the moon.
      • When the sun, moon, and Earth are in alignment (during a full or new moon), the gravitational pull of the sun and moon combine to create larger tidal ranges, known as spring tides.
      • When the sun and moon are at right angles to one another (during a first or third quarter moon), their gravitational pull partially cancels each other out, resulting in smaller tidal ranges, known as neap tides.
    • Importance of Tides:
      • Tides have a significant impact on marine life and coastlines.
      • They bring in nutrients and oxygen to the coastal areas, which supports the growth of plants and animals.
      • On the other hand, the strong currents created by tides can erode the coastlines and cause flooding.
      • The tides also provide a source of energy that can be harnessed through the use of tidal turbines, which generates electricity.
      • Tides are a natural phenomenon that results from the gravitational pull of celestial bodies, they bring a vertical movement of water that is essential to life on Earth, influencing the coastlines and the marine ecosystem, and also providing a source of energy.

    Conclusion

    Streams and tides are two different forms of water movement. Streams are a result of the flow of fresh water from high to low elevation, while tides are a result of the gravitational pull of the moon and sun on the Earth's oceans. Streams are important for the movement of freshwater resources and the sustenance of terrestrial life, while tides are important for the movement of ocean resources and the sustenance of marine life. Both streams and tides are integral parts of the Earth's water cycle and play a vital role in shaping the environment.

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