11 Mar 2023
GS Paper 3
Science & Technology
Question 1: The Geological Survey of India has recently made a significant discovery of Lithium reserves in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Discuss the implications of this discovery and its potential impact on India's energy security. (150 words)
Question2: "In India, the growing interest in green hydrogen has the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Discuss the advantages and challenges of producing and utilizing green hydrogen in India. How can India leverage its renewable energy potential to promote the adoption of green hydrogen?"
- Give a brief introduction about the discovery of lithium in Jammu and Kashmir.
- Discuss the implication associated with the lithium discovery in Jammu and Kashmir.
- Write a holistic and appropriate conclusion.
- The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has discovered Lithium reserves in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
- This discovery is significant as it is the first time that Lithium resources have been established in the country.
- Lithium is a crucial component of rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles and other applications.
The discovery of Lithium reserves in Jammu & Kashmir has several important implications:
- Reduction in Import of Lithium resources:
- India is currently heavily reliant on imported Lithium to meet its domestic demand. The availability of domestic Lithium resources can help reduce this dependence on foreign sources of Lithium and boost the country's energy security.
- It can help reduce India's dependence on imported Lithium, which is a critical component of Lithium-ion batteries used in various electronic devices, including electric vehicles. The availability of domestic Lithium resources can help accelerate the adoption of electric vehicles, reduce India's carbon footprint, and achieve its sustainable development goals.
- Reduction in carbon footprint:
- Moreover, the adoption of electric vehicles is rapidly increasing in India as the government aims to reduce the country's carbon footprint and achieve its sustainable development goals. The availability of domestic Lithium resources can provide a significant boost to the domestic manufacturing of Lithium-ion batteries, thereby accelerating the adoption of electric vehicles and reducing India's reliance on fossil fuels.
- Energy Security of India:
- It can boost India's energy security by reducing its reliance on foreign sources of energy. This is particularly important in light of the country's growing energy demands and the volatility of global energy markets.
- Boost Economy:
- The discovery of Lithium resources in Jammu & Kashmir can also create new economic opportunities and generate employment in the region. This can provide a significant boost to the local economy and contribute to India's overall economic growth.
The Geological Survey of India's discovery of Lithium resources in Jammu & Kashmir is a positive step towards India's energy security and sustainable development goals. However, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the estimate and the potential environmental impacts of Lithium extraction and processing. Any efforts to develop these resources must be guided by a commitment to responsible and sustainable resource management.
- Give a brief introduction about Green Hydrogen.
- Discuss the advantage and challenges associated with the Green Hydrogen and India’s renewable energy potential with respect to green hydrogen.
- Write a holistic and appropriate conclusion.
- Green hydrogen, which is hydrogen produced using renewable energy sources, is gaining traction in India as a potential solution to the country's growing energy demands and its commitment to reducing its carbon footprint.
- Unlike conventional hydrogen, green hydrogen does not produce any carbon dioxide when burned, making it an attractive option for India to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the impacts of climate change.
- This has led to growing interest in green hydrogen among policymakers, industry stakeholders, and investors in India.
- In this context, this essay will explore the advantages and challenges of producing and utilizing green hydrogen in India and how the country can leverage its renewable energy potential to promote the adoption of green hydrogen.
- Advantages of producing and utilizing green hydrogen in India:
- Reduced carbon footprint: As mentioned earlier, green hydrogen production does not generate any carbon emissions, which can significantly reduce India's carbon footprint and help the country achieve its climate targets.
- Energy security: India's reliance on imported fossil fuels can be reduced with the production of green hydrogen, providing energy security and reducing dependence on foreign sources.
- Scalability: Green hydrogen has the potential to scale up rapidly, making it a viable alternative for large-scale energy generation and industrial processes.
- Job creation: The production and utilization of green hydrogen can create new job opportunities in India, especially in the renewable energy sector.
- Challenges of producing and utilizing green hydrogen in India:
- High costs: The production of green hydrogen is currently more expensive than traditional hydrogen production methods. However, the cost is expected to reduce over time as technology advances and economies of scale are achieved.
- Infrastructure: India lacks the infrastructure required for the production, storage, and transportation of green hydrogen. Significant investment will be required to establish this infrastructure.
- Limited availability of renewable energy: The production of green hydrogen relies heavily on renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. However, India currently has limited renewable energy capacity.
- Technological challenges: The production of green hydrogen requires advanced technology and expertise, which may not be readily available in India.
- How India can leverage its renewable energy potential to promote the adoption of green hydrogen:
- Increasing renewable energy capacity: India needs to significantly increase its renewable energy capacity to support the production of green hydrogen.
- Establishing supportive policies and regulations: The Indian government needs to establish policies and regulations that support the development of green hydrogen infrastructure and production.
- Encouraging private investment: The Indian government can encourage private investment in green hydrogen production and infrastructure development through incentives and tax breaks.
- Building international partnerships: India can leverage international partnerships and collaborations to access technology and expertise in green hydrogen production.
Green hydrogen has the potential to significantly reduce India's carbon footprint and provide energy security. While there are challenges to its production and utilization, India can leverage its renewable energy potential and establish supportive policies and regulations to promote the adoption of green hydrogen. If implemented effectively, green hydrogen can play a significant role in India's transition to a low-carbon economy.