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State PCS

Sambhav-2023

  • 04 Mar 2023 GS Paper 3 Bio-diversity & Environment

    Day 100
    Question 1: Discuss the Convention on Biological Diversity. What are the measures taken by the Indian government to protect its biodiversity heritage from piracy and illegal monetization? (250 words)

    Question 2: Discuss the LiFE and its potential to achieve sustainable development in India and world. (150 words)

    Answer 1

    Approach

    • Give a brief introduction about the Convention on Biological Diversity.
    • Discuss the measures taken by the Indian government to protect the biodiversity heritage.
    • Write a holistic and appropriate conclusion.

    Introduction

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international treaty that was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The CBD aims to conserve and sustainably use the world's biological diversity, promote the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, and ensure the conservation of ecosystems that are essential for the survival of species.

    Body

    The CBD has three main objectives:

    • Conservation of biological diversity: The CBD aims to conserve biodiversity, including ecosystems, species, and genetic diversity, to ensure their continued existence and functioning. This objective includes the identification and protection of endangered species and their habitats, the establishment of protected areas, and the promotion of sustainable land and resource management practices.
    • Sustainable use of biological resources: The CBD recognizes that the sustainable use of biological resources is necessary for human well-being and economic development. This objective includes the promotion of sustainable agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, as well as the development of biotechnology and other applications of genetic resources that are consistent with conservation principles.
    • Fair and equitable sharing of benefits: The CBD recognizes that the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources should be shared fairly and equitably between providers and users. This objective includes the establishment of access and benefit-sharing mechanisms that ensure that countries and communities that provide genetic resources receive a fair share of the benefits arising from their use.

    The Indian government has taken several measures to protect its biodiversity heritage from piracy and illegal monetization. Some of these measures are:

    • The Biological Diversity Act, 2002: This Act provides for the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological resources. It also establishes the National Biodiversity Authority and State Biodiversity Boards to regulate access to biological resources and to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use.
    • The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: This Act provides for the protection of wild animals and plants and their habitats. It prohibits hunting, poaching, and trade in wildlife and their derivatives.
    • The Forest Conservation Act, 1980: This Act provides for the conservation of forests and regulates diversion of forest land for non-forest purposes.
    • The Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime: India has a strong IPR regime that includes patents, trademarks, and copyrights. The government has taken steps to ensure that the traditional knowledge and biodiversity resources of indigenous communities are protected under the IPR regime.
    • Traditional Knowledge Digital Library: The Indian government has created a Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) to protect traditional knowledge related to biodiversity from being patented by others. The TKDL contains information on traditional knowledge related to ayurveda, yoga, and other Indian systems of medicine.
    • Biodiversity Heritage Sites: The Indian government has identified several sites as Biodiversity Heritage Sites (BHS), which are areas of ecological and biodiversity significance. These sites are protected under the Biological Diversity Act, 2002, and are managed by local committees.
    • The National Mission on Himalayan Studies: The Indian government has launched the National Mission on Himalayan Studies to study the Himalayan region's biodiversity and ecology and to develop sustainable strategies for its conservation.

    Conclusion

    The CBD has made progress in promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, the world still faces a biodiversity crisis due to various factors. Therefore, there is a growing need for increased action and collaboration at all levels to conserve and sustainably use the world's biological diversity. In India, there is a need for continuous efforts and collaboration among stakeholders to protect the country's rich biodiversity heritage from illegal exploitation and ensure sustainable management of its biodiversity resources.


    Answer 2

    Approach

    • Give a brief introduction about the Convention on Biological Diversity.
    • Discuss the measures taken by the Indian government to protect the biodiversity heritage.
    • Write a holistic and appropriate conclusion.

    Introduction

    LiFE, or the Landscape and Livelihoods Framework, is a sustainable development approach developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) that focuses on balancing conservation goals with the needs and aspirations of local communities. It recognizes that conservation and development are interdependent and that successful conservation efforts must consider the needs and livelihoods of local communities.

    Body

    • The LiFE approach is designed to promote sustainable development by engaging with all stakeholders in the landscape, including government, civil society, and private sector actors. The framework includes several key components, including:
      • Mapping and analyzing the landscape: This involves identifying the ecological, social, and economic characteristics of the landscape, including its biodiversity, ecosystem services, and the livelihoods of local communities.
      • Setting priorities and objectives: Based on the analysis of the landscape, stakeholders work together to identify the conservation and development objectives that will balance the needs of local communities with conservation goals.
      • Developing and implementing strategies: This involves developing and implementing strategies to achieve the agreed-upon objectives. Strategies may include developing alternative livelihoods for local communities, promoting sustainable agriculture and forestry practices, and improving governance and stakeholder engagement.
      • Monitoring and evaluating progress: Regular monitoring and evaluation are critical to ensuring that the strategies are effective and achieving the desired outcomes. This helps stakeholders to adjust their strategies as needed and to learn from successes and failures.

    The LiFE approach could be applied to a range of landscapes, including forests, wetlands, and coastal zones. For example, in the Sundarbans mangrove forest, the LiFE approach could be used to promote sustainable shrimp farming practices that balance the needs of local communities with conservation goals. Similarly, in the Western Ghats region, the LiFE approach could be used to promote sustainable agriculture and forestry practices that maintain the region's biodiversity while also supporting local livelihoods.

    Conclusion

    The LiFE approach offers immense potential to attain sustainable development in India and the world by endorsing a comprehensive approach to conservation and development. Through the involvement of all stakeholders in the landscape, such as local communities, governments, and the private sector, LiFE can advance sustainable development that caters to the needs of both people and the environment.

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