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Mains Marathon

  • 09 Aug 2022 GS Paper 1 History

    Day 30: The number of ideologies and voices in India had weakened the freedom struggle of India. Do you Agree? (250 Words)

    • Introduce the different ideologies and voices in the freedom struggle.
    • Discuss how these ideologies were acting against each other and weakening the freedom struggle of India.
    • Also discuss the positive effect of these ideologies that benefited both Indian society and freedom struggle.
    • Conclude suitably.


    Indian freedom struggle was comprised of several ideologies like moderates, extremist, revolutionaries, communist and Gandhian and caste and religion-based voices.

    These interests and ideologies had a very uneven effect on the Indian freedom struggle of independence. Generally, these ideologies and voices were representing a comprehensive and holistic interest of Indian society. But several times the conflicting nature of these interests and ideologies had brought a conciliatory nature in India's freedom struggle.

    Some of these ideologies were struggling for comprehensive Indian interest but others for a particular group, ideology or a section of society.

    Ideologies that had weakened/drifted the freedom struggle of India due to their conflicting nature:

    • Conflict between the thoughts of early revolutionaries and moderates regarding ways of struggle with colonial powers nullified the efforts of both the parties and no one had achieved any significant success due to their differences.
    • The Surat split of 1907 between the moderates and extremists due to their different understanding of British colonial rule and objective of the British rule in India had brought a thaw in freedom struggle for a long time till 1916, when both united.
    • The conflict between the Gandhian ideas and the ideas of Subhas Bose in the INC regarding the ways to achieve independence during the second world wars, ended up with no major success either way.
    • The differences between the moderates like Dr. Ambedkar and Gandhiji led to decreased the efforts of both the parties. Example, Neither Dr. Ambedkar could become the sole representative of the depressed class nor Gandhiji was recognised as sole representative of whole India at the second-round table conference in London because of their differences.
    • The difference between the ideology of Indian National Congress (INC) and Muslim League had brought a stalemate for a long time in 1930s till its independence and even brought very harsh reality of riots and India’s partition.

    Although these ideologies had differences in their actions, as a whole Indian society these ideologies brought various democratic and secular values that evolved into an inclusive and democratic society.

    The different ideologies brought an inclusive society and strengthened the national movement:

    • The early moderates were representing the ideas and thoughts of the elite section of Indian society and the later moderates had a view of urban middle class intelligentsia about the British colonial rules. Both early and later moderates nourished a democratic and tolerant environment that enabled working with different and conflicting interests.
    • The early revolutionaries were mostly from the elite section of the society like early moderates but later revolutionaries had increasing inclusiveness nature ranging from middle class intelligentsia like Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen (a school teacher) and women like Pritilata Waddedar (conducted raid with Surya Sen), Bina Das (fired at governor). The revolutionaries with Subhas Bose in Indian National Army (INA) were very inclusive in nature which included a women regiment.
    • The caste and religion-based groups were raising the voices and concerns of depressed sections of society and it was not only making the freedom struggle more democratic and inclusive but also making the freedom movement a nation building movement.
    • The Gandhian ideology represented the voice and concern of the masses ranging from the poor to rich and high caste to depressed section of society. It brought the feeling of “we” among the Indians and enabled a number of great mass movements under his leadership.
    • The foreigners like Annie Besant (advocated Home Rule for India) and Harry Verrier Holman Elwin (work with Mahatma Gandhi and with the Baigas and Gonds of Orissa and M.P. and tribals of several North East Indian states) had brought a unique perspective and raised the voice of the unknown section of the society.

    Due to its very diverse and unique nature of Indian society. The number of Ideologies and voices are bound to rise. The Indian freedom struggle was not only the struggle for independence but also a nation building campaign to inculcate the democratic and progressive liberal ideals among a large section of Indian society for a sustainable and progressive democratic nation.

    Although the number of ideas and voices in the freedom struggle had drifted the movement in different directions other than freedom. But due to these drifts, we evolved as a unique society and nation with immense diversity, a nation about which no one had thought and even the colonial intellectuals were not considering India as a nation.

    The creation of India as a nation with varied interest is possible due to those ideologies and voices.

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