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Mains Marathon

  • 06 Sep 2022 GS Paper 4 Revision Tests

    Day 58: Full Length Test GS IV

    Question 1. (a) Give examples that back up the lifeboat ethical principle. (150 Words)

    (b) How do values work? Draw attention to the significance of values in governance. (150 Words)

    Question 2. (a) What are the ethical concerns associated with the use of artificial intelligence in military security? (150 Words)

    (b) In light of India's non-alignment policy, do you perceive a change in its international ethics? Give justifications for your answer. (150 words)

    (c) Describe e-Citizen Charter? Give an example of how the PRAGATI platform may support an efficient grievance resolution process. (150 Words)

    Question 3. (a) What essential roles do impartiality and nonpartisanship play in establishing a neutral approach in public service? Give instances that will help to back up your argument. (150 Words)

    (b) Controlling their emotions is essential for public servants. Discuss the undesired unpleasant emotion that s/he should avoid. (150 Words)

    Question 4. (a) Analyze Kautilya's perspectives on corruption in governance. How much are these concepts still relevant in Indian culture today? (150 words)

    (b) How are Mahatma Gandhi's Eleven Pledges still applicable in today's society? (150 words)

    Question 5. (a) While some individuals hold the opinion that values change over time and in different circumstances, others firmly hold that there are some human values that are both universal and immutable. Explain with examples. (150 words)

    (b) Power sharing and participatory decision-making are required for effective leadership. Provide relevant examples to back up your response. (150 words)

    Question 6. (a) Consider the function of emotional intelligence in the diverse context that exists for an administrator. Also identify the primary characteristics that an emotionally intelligent administrator should possess, Examine with examples. (150 words)

    (b) The demands of growth and the requirements of climate justice must be balanced. Give an explanation of the contemporary importance of climate justice from this perspective. (150 words)

    Question 7. ABC Ltd. is a significant global corporation with diverse commercial operations and a broad shareholder base. The firm is constantly growing and creating jobs. As part of its development and diversification strategy, the business intends to create a new facility in Vikaspuri, an underdeveloped region. The new facility is planned to make use of energy-efficient technologies, which will enable the business to cut manufacturing costs by 20%. The business's choice is in line with the government's strategy of luring investment to improve these neglected areas. Additionally, the government has announced a five-year tax break for businesses that make investments in underdeveloped regions. Unfortunately, the generally quiet residents of the Vikaspuri district may experience mayhem as a result of the new plant. The new facility may raise living expenses, attract foreigners to the area, and fundamentally change the local social and economic structure. The corporation attempted to inform the inhabitants of Vikaspuri region and the public at large about how its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy would assist to overcome the expected challenges faced by the residents of Vikaspuri region after feeling the possibility of a protest. Despite this, demonstrations start, and some locals opt to go before the courts after their government-level appeals were unsuccessful.

    (a) Identify the ethical issues involved in the case.

    (b) What can be suggested to satisfy the company’s goal and to address the residents’ concerns?

    Question 8. A military squad tracks down a terrorist group that is planning an attack that would murder hundreds of people. They have control over a drone that can attack the terrorists with a bomb and stop the attack. A little girl selling bread near the bombing zone is seen on video as the squad prepares the bombs. Should they carry out their strategy killing the girl in order to stop many other people from being killed?

    (a) Examine the options available to the military team, along with their pros and cons.

    (b) In this scenario, as the head of the military team, what course of action would you adopt? (250 words)

    Question 9. When a young female IAS official enters a government department, she finds widespread gender prejudice. The male employees do not like to receive commands from senior female officials, and women are not assigned major departmental initiatives. Suggest ways that the young IAS officer may do to eliminate such discrimination and make the workplace more welcoming to women.

    Question 10. A legal firm counts you as a partner. One of your company's clients is a successful businessman with a strong reputation in society. For the past five years, this client has had a contract with the company. However, this client is currently thought to be a part of India's largest bank scam. The client is believed to have fled to a nation that can only extradite him with strong evidence, as he is now on the run. Investigative authorities search your company in connection with this case and uncover evidence that incriminates the client. However, you are aware that the company still has access to a wealth of material that is essential for determining the client's guilt. You come to the realization that finding the client and bringing him to justice is crucial for the nation.

    What would you do if this circumstance arises? Analyze numerous conflicts of interest critically and describe your obligations as a responsible citizen of the nation. (250 words)

    Question 11. The Indian parliament just enacted a bill intended to revolutionize the country's economy. Many famous economists applaud this piece of legislation as progressive and one that will boost economic growth in the years to come. Unfortunately, because the political administration did a poor job of explaining the potential effects of the reforms to those who would be impacted by them and bypassing several parliamentary procedures, alarmed citizens began nonviolent demonstrations calling for the reforms to be reversed. International attention has been drawn to the extent and dedication of the protesters. Western celebrities and campaigners have recently raised the topic on social media channels. The administration suspects that unscrupulous individuals who are spreading propaganda and disinformation are behind the organized way in which social media posts have surfaced. The administration formally rejected the tweets, branding them "motivated" and "misinformed," in an aggressive step. It's interesting that social media tweets from Indian celebrities asserting that these protests are internal affairs and should be free of propaganda also appeared. Many people have also raised the possibility that these posts were created with official approval.

    (a) Identify and discuss the ethical issues involved in the above case.

    (b) Suggest alternative measures that could have been employed by the government to deal with the situation. (250 Words)

    Question 12. You have experience in cyber intelligence and are an honest police officer. Throughout your impressive career, you have dismantled several criminal networks, followed the digital operations of terrorists, and revealed illicit money infrastructures. As a cyber specialist, you used spying, espionage, hacking, and malware to assault targeted people's networks. You've had a string of achievements in this area that have made you well-known among government officials. A minister's personal assistant approaches you at the retirement celebration of the head of your department and extends an invitation for a private meeting with the minister. In your discussion with the minister, he tells you about a recent defense agreement for the purchase of cutting-edge aircraft that the opposition is contesting due to a lack of openness. The minister requests that you examine a few prominent opposition leaders' private emails and conversations in order to expose their prior fraudulent behavior. The aircraft purchase won't be hampered since this will put them in a defensive posture. You believe that this agreement is crucial for safeguarding India's airspace.

    (a) In such circumstances, will you agree to the minister’s proposal?

    (b) Do you think that spying on citizens in the name of national security is justified in a democratic system? (250 Words)

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    Solution 1: (a)

    Approach:

    • Define the concept of lifeboat ethics
    • Elucidate its rationale with examples from recent times
    • Briefly identify its limitations
    • Suitably conclude.

    Answer:

    Lifeboat Ethics is a metaphor for resource distribution proposed by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in 1974. Hardin lays out the premise of how each nation is similar to a lifeboat with specific carrying capacity and allowing more people onboard will saturate the capacity of the boat, and thus constraining the availability of resources for the original occupants of the boat.

    Going by this analogy, developed or privileged countries tend to not offer aid to poor countries or accept migrants from these countries because they are not under any obligation to do so, and it may also stress the resource availability for their own citizens.

    In recent times, we have seen nativist, anti-migrant tendencies in developed countries. Distraught refugees from war torn countries like Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen have been denied entry in many European countries. Even in India, despite having a long history of harboring refugees, Rohingyas fleeing persecution were not wholeheartedly welcomed. Recently the United States came up with a restrictive immigration policy for banning entry of Central American people fleeing violence and poverty. All these actions may seem immoral if judged on principles of humanity, but looking from the perspective of lifeboat ethics, these acts seem to be completely justified.

    Human advances in science, technology, economic growth and governance have failed to reach and improve the living conditions in all countries. A major share of the world's population continues to live in Failed States and underdeveloped countries- reeling under poverty, effects of rapid climate change and scourge of civil wars. These affected people require aid, donations and asylum. A practitioner of lifeboat ethics may argue that countries should only care for their own citizens and maximize their welfare, since resources are limited.

    Such an argument is flawed on two grounds- firstly, even though resources are limited but real problem lies in their uneven distribution. Secondly, a lot of the predicament of aid and asylum seekers arises not from their own doings. It was developed nations who exploited these countries through colonialism, intervened in internal affairs of their country for geopolitical interests and unleashed havoc on climate change by luxurious living.

    Lifeboat ethics presumes Nation States as impregnable entities, insular to external changes. Although the world is divided into many countries, humanity unites us all. We all share global commons and ‘poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere’. Countries of the world cannot forsake their duty of helping each other. Helping refugees, when a country is fully endowed with plenty of resources, can be a tool for soft power projection, strengthening multiculturalism and nurturing immigrant talents for economic prosperity.


    Solution 1: (b)

    Approach:

    • Explain what are values.
    • Enumerate various types of values important in governance such as integrity, neutrality, responsibility etc.
    • Establish how various values play a significant role in governance

    Answer:

    Values are basic and fundamental beliefs that guide or motivate attitudes, actions and conduct. Values are enduring beliefs about an ideal mode of behavior. They help us to determine what is important to us. Values describe the personal qualities we choose to embody to guide our actions; the sort of person we want to be; the manner in which we treat ourselves and others, and our interaction with the world around us.

    The system of values, policies and institutions by which a society manages its economic, political and social affairs through interactions within and among the State, civil society and the private sector is called Governance.

    Values such as objectivity, integrity, neutrality, responsibility, credibility, impartiality, confidentiality, dedication to public service, transparency, efficiency, are crucial for governance and ensure the rule of law, stability, equity and inclusiveness, empowerment, and broad-based participation of all.

    The following values have a major bearing on the governance architecture of any society:

    Integrity: Integrity can be understood as moral uprightness and strong adherence to honesty and fairness. Integrity aims at preventing corruption and fostering high standards of behaviour, help to reinforce the credibility and legitimacy of those involved in policy decision making, safeguarding the public interest and restoring confidence in the policy making process.

    Objectivity: Objectivity means taking rational decisions based upon established norms, laws, rules, regulations rather than personal opinion or bias. The decisions of public officials must be impartial, fair and based on merit. Objectivity is considered one of the important values in governance both by the Nolan Committee and 2nd ARC report.

    Impartiality: Impartiality is the absence of bias in the due process. It ensures that the views of each and every stakeholder is duly taken into consideration. Above that, it also ensures inclusive development of any nation.

    Transparency: Transparency means that decisions are taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement.

    Responsiveness: Good governance requires that institutions and processes serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. E.g., Timely response to Right to Information applications will retain and further strengthen people's faith in government machinery and that will ultimately lead to citizen centric governance.

    Accountability: Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders.

    Values thus act as a guiding light, and reshape the code of ethics to be followed for good governance. Values without institutional support become weak and dissipate. Institutions with high values provide a platform for an efficient delivery system. Thus, values ultimately strengthen the commitment to public service and spirit of good governance.


    Solution 2: (a)

    Approach

    • Begin by highlighting the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the military and the need for an ethical dimension.
    • Enumerate various ethical issues involved in integrating AI with conventional military forces.
    • Conclude with the need for science and technology to prioritize human principles

    Answer:

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a technology that enables a computer to think or act in a more 'human' way. It does this by taking in information from its surroundings, and deciding its response based on what it learns or senses. It is a scientific and technological advancement which has the potential to transform military security at an unprecedented level. Since AI is overtaking the role of humans, ethical principles which govern human conduct must also be a concern before deployment of AI in the military.

    The ethical issues related to the use of AI in military security are:

    • Violation of the right to privacy and other human rights: AI augments the capability of military forces manifold, with the use of advanced AI tools for patrolling and surveillance. This may threaten the right to privacy and other fundamental Rights in border and insurgency ridden areas.
    • Altering human behavior and beliefs: In autocratic countries where allegiance towards a single party or person is necessary, an ethnic, cultural or religious aberration can invite the ire of the ruling government. In Xinjiang, for example, the Chinese military is using face recognition technology and widespread spying by use of state-of-art AI tools for manipulating the behavior and belief system of Uighur Muslims. Elsewhere, the government is developing a social credit score system for assessing the behavior of citizens.
    • Subduing role of human intelligence and capability: Till now, the decisions in military security were taken by Generals who had years of experience in warfare, but with the involvement of mind-boggling data analysis beyond human capability, it would be the AI systems coming up with most rational and prudent decisions.
    • Emotional Intelligence and empathy: Military security dominated by human recruits is based on camaraderie and fraternity. Soldiers support each other emotionally in difficult circumstances but a soldier employed with or controlling a drone, automated weapon or a robotic dog cannot expect the same empathy from the machine. Even during crucial decision making, AI lacks Emotional Intelligence which could make such mechanistic decisions catastrophic. The Cuban Missile Crisis was diffused by JF Kennedy by using EI by calling the USSR leader for conveying his concerns. However, decision making on threat perception by use of AI, leaves little scope of such reconciliation.
    • Proportionality in war: Introduction of AI in the military may increase the scale of violence and destruction and in case of war between two countries, one may choose to escalate it unilaterally with use of autonomous weapons, which can lead to more collateral damage.
    • Accountability and responsibility: Any war demands right conduct within the normative principles of warfare. Today, military personnel can be charged with war crimes if they violate the ethical principles of warfare, but once automated machines are involved, the burden of accountability gets scattered, and machines cannot be held responsible for cruel acts.

    Rational use of AI can be a game changer in terms of strengthening of internal and external security, however there is a need of assimilation of ethical principle and right conduct as Mahatma Gandhi said that any ‘science without humanity’ is a sin; we must keep in mind these words before going for indiscriminate use of AI in military security.


    Solution 2: (b)

    Approach:

    • Briefly explain the idea of Non-Alignment Policy.
    • Mention the foundational principles guiding India’s international ethics.
    • Give reasons showing a shift in India’s international ethics with examples.

    Answer:

    India’s non-alignment policy was based on the idea that a country should be free to have its own foreign policy, which should not be based on the dictates of any other country. Hence, it focused on self-determination, national independence and sovereignty and territorial integrity of States and non-adherence to multilateral military pacts.

    It was based on the ‘Panchsheel’ principles:

    • Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
    • Mutual non-aggression
    • Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs
    • Equality and mutual benefit
    • Peaceful co-existence

    ‘Moral idealism’ in Indian foreign policy:

    • India’s idealism in foreign policy is guided by its civilizational values of peace, tolerance and cosmopolitanism. Hence, India mainly relied on its soft power based on its culture, democratic governance, etc.
    • India’s active participation in drafting of the Universal Charter for Human Rights, India’s contribution to UN peacekeeping operations, offering of Indian diplomatic services for mediation during the Korean war, were all intended to project India’s civilizational responsibility to the international community.

    Following factors indicate a shift in India’s international ethics:

    • Priority to short term national interest: National interest may come in conflict with ethics in international relations.
      • For ex: India going for nuclear weapons for its national interest even though it explicitly promotes nuclear disarmament and peaceful coexistence.
      • India did not raise ‘Rohingya issue’ with Myanmar due to its national interest even though India has philosophy of ‘Vasudev Kutumbakam’ and ‘Atithi Devo Bhava’.
    • Elements of ‘moral realism’ are emerging in an era of NAM 2.0 where due consideration is being given to the power view of international politics.
      • India’s shift to realpolitik can be observed during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War, 1988 Operation Cactus in Maldives, and the recent foreign policy stance towards Pakistan.
    • Geo-political changes: From non-alignment, India’s ambition of being a ‘net security provider’ in the Indo-Pacific region pushes India to go for alliances and engage in military exercises.
      • For ex: the Malabar exercise with the USA and Japan, emergence of QUAD grouping with USA, Japan and Australia.

    Even after a shift in its foreign policy, India’s core values still remain intact. This can be seen in its support to peaceful transition in Afghanistan and its focus on people-to-people connect instead of the reliance on military dominance.


    Solution 2: (c)

    Approach

    • Define what is e-citizen charter and its importance in brief
    • Discuss its major principles and components.
    • Briefly define what is PRAGATI.
    • Explain its features and how it redresses grievances.
    • Conclude briefly

    Answer:

    E- Citizen Charter is an aspect of e-governance where the government services are provided through the application of information and communication technology (ICT). A Citizen’s Charter is the expression of an understanding between citizens and the provider of public service with respect to the quantity and quality of services the former receives. It is essentially about the rights of the public and the obligations of the public servants.

    The concept was first articulated and implemented in the United Kingdom in 1991. The basic six principles of the Citizen’s Charter are:

    Quality: Improving the quality of services;

    Choice: Wherever possible;

    Standards: Specifying what to expect and how to act if standards are not met;

    Value: For the taxpayers’ money;

    Accountability: Individuals and Organizations; and

    Transparency: Rules and procedures to be followed for grievance redressal.

    The major components of a citizen’s charter are-

    • Vision and Mission Statement;
    • Details of Business transacted by the Organization;
    • Details of clients;
    • Details of services provided to each client group;
    • Details of grievance redressal mechanism and how to access it; and
    • Expectations from the clients.

    PRAGATI application: Effective Grievance redressal mechanism

    PRAGATI stands for Pro-Active Governance And Timely Implementation. As the name suggests, it is aimed at starting a culture of Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation. It is also a robust system for bringing e-transparency and e-accountability with real-time presence and exchange among the key stakeholders. PRAGATI App is helping in effective grievance redressal mechanism in the following way:

    • The PRAGATI platform uniquely bundles three latest technologies: digital data management, video-conferencing and geo-spatial technology. With this, the Prime Minister is able to discuss the issues with the concerned officials with full information and the latest visuals of the ground level situation which is an innovative project in e-governance.
    • It is a three-tier system i.e, PMO, Union Government Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries of the States and thus bring them on one stage. With this, the Prime Minister will be able to directly discuss the issues with the concerned central and state officials.
    • The Prime Minister will hold a monthly programme where he will interact with the officials through video-conferencing enabled by data and geo-informatics visuals; The programme will be held once in every month on the fourth Wednesday at 3.30 PM-to be known as PRAGATI Day.
    • Issues to be flagged before the authorities will be picked up from the available database public grievances redressal will be done accordingly.
    • It gives an elaborate and timely mechanism for effective grievance redressal.

    Citizen charter is a robust institutional mechanism for the proper implementation of laws and the delivery of laws. Applications like PRAGATI would certainly help in the effective grievance redressal and ultimately curbing the red tapism and corruption.


    Solution 3: (a)

    Approach

    • Give a brief introduction by defining impartiality and non-partisanship
    • Explain its importance in ensuring neutrality in public service
    • Substantiate your arguments with suitable examples
    • Conclude positively

    Answer:

    In a democracy, every holder of public office is accountable to the people. Such accountability is enforced through ethical codes which ultimately shape the quality-of-service delivery in public. Impartiality and non-partisanship are two dimensions of ethics that codify the adoption of a neutral approach in public service. Neutrality can be defined as the status of being detached or disinterested towards any kind of profit or self-gain. Impartiality is to act without bias of status of particular group rich vs poor and social pressure of caste and religion, while non-partisanship is a lack of inclination or affiliation towards a particular ideology or political parties.

    Impartiality and nonpartisanship create a mechanism for the enforcement of good governance for all. However, in complex socio-political scenarios of India, it is difficult for a public servant to be objective and unbiased. In such a situation, the above two values work as a guiding principle to serve society at its best. These values enlighten the path of the public servants to work with different regimes or parties with the same enthusiasm without any conflict. The same is true when a public servant has to assimilate the ‘welfare for all ‘approach, especially in the context of policy implementation. Public policies, even if they are contrary to his/her beliefs, must be implemented without any consideration of caste, class, region or religion. E.g. If a public servant has to work in tribal areas, he may find some cultural antagonism with the practices of tribal society; however, that should not impact on his zeal to serve the people.

    Similarly, a public servant also comes from a specific society, if one remains conscious of all the societal parameters, he or she will make biased decisions based on personal opinion. E.g., A public servant from an elite section of society may not be sympathetic or compassionate towards the weaker section of society. Impartiality and non-partisanship will mold the attitude of the public servants for better governance and unbiased implementation of welfare policies.

    Whenever there is a crisis of conscience and ethical dilemma to decide between right and wrong, impartiality and non-partisanships ultimately ensure neutrality, shape values of integrity and objectivity. This ultimately leads to dedication for public service in real sense. Mr. T.N. Sheshan could thrive in difficult circumstances with dignity and respect because he always adhered to the principle of neutrality, non-partisanship, and impartiality. This attitude has reformed the institute of Election Commission. So, in a nutshell, non-partisanship and impartiality ensure neutrality by ensuring good governance, apolitical functioning, and transparency in decision making. These values are necessary to build safeguards to prevent conflict of interest so that allegiance to the various ideals enshrined in the preamble of the Constitution could be restored.


    Solution 3: (b)

    Approach

    • In the introduction, write in brief about the emotion and their effects.
    • Discuss the undesirable negative emotions that public servants should refrain from.
    • Conclude suitably giving some measures to manage negative emotions.

    Answer:

    Emotions are biologically based psychological states, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioral responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure. There is currently no scientific consensus on a definition. Emotions are often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, creativity.

    In 1972, Paul Eckman suggested that there are six basic emotions that are universal throughout human cultures: fear, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and sadness.

    Negative emotions public servants should manage:

    • Manage Negative emotions: Animosity, attachment, aversion, selfishness, arrogance, jealousy, greed, hypocrisy, malice and similar emotions should never drive public servants’ actions.
      • While doing his duties, he should ensure that our mind remains serene and composed.
    • They should not be obsessed with anxieties about success or failure, happiness or misery, victory or defeat, profit or loss and glory or humiliation which actions may bring about.
    • Public servants should not get unduly buoyed up by success or overly depressed by failure. They should learn to take such things in their stride.
    • Human beings, by their very nature, tend to be selfish. But public servants should sublimate selfish propensities by directing them towards service to man and society.
    • Religious Intolerance: They should not be motivated by religious fundamentalism and favor a particular religion but should be religiously tolerant.
    • Do not feel dejected by failures: Anyone should not opt out of the challenges of personal and social life. They should not fall into escapism or seek false anodynes. Ideas like divine will or destiny should not be used as pretexts for inaction.
      • Men cannot know divine will. They have to perform their duty without thinking about other matters.

    Emotions can be managed through practice and inculcating the ability of emotional intelligence. It is the ability to identify one’s own emotions and those of others, harness and apply them to tasks, and to regulate and manage them.


    Solution 4: (a)

    Approach

    • Discuss Kautilya's ideas on governance and corruption.
    • Discuss their relevance in contemporary times.
    • Write a fair Conclusion.

    Answer:

    The Kautilya's in his work Arthashastra discussed issues of governance and corruption. Arthashastra sets the conceptual groundwork for making India the first welfare state.

    Kautilya’s Idea on Governance

    • According to Kautilya, to ensure good governance there must be a properly guided public administration, where the ruler should surrender his likes and dislikes in the interest of his subjects, and the personnel running the Government should be responsive and responsible.
    • He states that "In the happiness of his subjects lies the king's happiness, in their welfare lays his welfare. He shall not consider as good as only that which pleases him but treat as beneficial to him whatever pleases his subjects". This view of Kautilya, displays his emphasis on Good Governance
    • Kautilya further emphasized that for citizen friendly good governance there should be uniformity in the administrative practices as well as competent ministers and officials possessing qualities of leadership, accountability, intellect, energy, good moral conduct, and physical fitness, capable of taking prompt decisions.
    • A ruler who administers justice on the basis of four principles: righteousness, evidence, history of the case, and the prevalent law, shall conquer the earth.
    • According to him, there is stability if rulers are responsive, responsible, accountable, removable and recallable, otherwise there would be instability.
    • For good governance, all administrators, including the King, were considered servants of the people. They were paid for the services rendered and not for their ownership of anything.

    Views on Corruption:

    His views on corruption in public services were remarkably realist and underlines his emphasis on practice rather than theory.

    • According to him, corruption can be difficult to avoid as Kautilya said that it is impossible to tell that, “Just as fish moving under water cannot possibly be found either as drinking or not drinking water”.
    • He recommends strictest punishment, both material and corporal, as a disincentive to cheat.
    • Kautilya was well-versed with the characteristics of bureaucrats and statesmen and laid down rules to prevent misuse of power.
    • He emphasized the importance of accounting methods in economic enterprises to properly measure economic performance.

    Relevance of his ideas in present Indian society:

    • Good governance and stability are even more applicable in the present democratic system. These values remain relevant in the present context as accountability; responsibility of government towards citizens is paramount in the parliamentary system of democracy adopted by India.
    • Social welfare is the main focal point of Kautilya's economic notions. The State was required to help the poor and helpless and to be proactive in contributing to the welfare of its citizens. In India, the emphasis on marginalized is important, as from the 1990's economic reforms inequalities of income are increasing in India.
    • His emphasis on ethical standards for public servants and kings remain still relevant e.g. 2nd ARC suggested code of ethics for civil servants as well as political executives.
    • Kautilya’s ideas on corruption are still relevant in modern day India as corruption in public life remains a big problem. India is ranked 78 out of 180 countries in the global corruption index by Transparency International. Issues of corruption in public services, electoral funding, cronyism etc. are widely debated in India.

    The Arthashastra provides broad coverage on the overall economy, which includes: infrastructure (roadwork, irrigation, forestry, and fortification), weights and measurements, labour and employment, commerce and trade, commodities and agriculture, land use and property laws, money and coinage, interest rates and loan markets, tariffs and taxes etc. It is of much significance to modern time and can be useful to exemplify several contemporary economic thoughts.


    Solution 4: (b)

    Approach:

    • Write about Eleven vows of Mahatma Gandhi.
    • Describe Its significance in today's society.
    • Write a fair conclusion.

    Answer:

    Mahatma Gandhi gave the eleven vows for spiritual and moral upliftment of the inmates of Sabarmati Ashram, but these vows served as important principles for the benefit of the entire society.

    The Eleven Vows are:

    Satya-Truth: ‘Sachhidananda’ [Sat(being)+Chit (true knowledge)+Anand (bliss)] is one of the epithets of the Supreme Being. Observance of Truth was expected not only in speech but also in thought and in action.

    Ahimsa-Nonviolence: Ahimsa is the path along which one reaches truth. It not only means forbearing from physical violence but also removing all hatred, jealousy, and desire to harm others.

    Brahmacharya-Celibacy: It really means 'moving towards, Brahma' that is, towards truth. For such a person, a control over all senses is necessary.

    Asteya-Non-stealing: A person should use limited resources and should not deprive others of basic necessities.

    Aparigraha or Asangraha: Non-possession: A person should lead such a simple life that he takes for himself from society only his minimum requirements.

    Sharira-Shrama - Physical labour or Bread Labour: His concept of shrama-yagna suggested that everyone should perform some kind of physical labour in the spirit of oneness with the poor.

    Asvada-Control of Palate: It is a part of sadhana of the pilgrim to ‘truth’ with the conviction that food is meant only to sustain the body and for service of others.

    Abhaya-Fearlessness: In order to realize the truth, it is necessary to remove all fear.

    Sarva-Dharma-Samanatva - Equal respect for all Religions: Quest of truth being the moving spirit behind all religions. So, one should never consider one's own religion to be the only perfect religion.

    Swadeshi-Duty towards the neighbour: Gandhiji insisted to serve the immediate neighbour or indigenous goods in the spirit of love.

    Asprishyatanivarana-Removal of Untouchability: Gandhi’s vision was to to wipe out untouchability and to uplift the depressed and the downtrodden people.

    Significance in today’s society

    • Adherence to truthfulness is necessary for maintaining personal uprightness and professional integrity.
    • The philosophy of Asangraha or non-possession can help address the rising consumerism, environmental unsustainability and inequality globally.
    • Concept of bread labour has been effectively utilized in the Swachh Bharat Mission to bring behavioural change among citizens.
    • Abhaya or fearlessness is needed to raise inquisitiveness among young minds of the nation so as to express their freedom of speech and expression and raise dissenting voices upholding the true meaning of democracy.
    • Ahimsa or Non-violence is the only solution to global peace and prosperity when the world is facing the problems of ethnic conflicts, terrorism, war, etc.

    Hence, Gandhian principles continue to serve as a harbinger of peace and social solidarity in the society today.


    Solution 5: (a)

    Approach:

    • Define human values with examples.
    • Explain the type of values, whether they keep changing with time or are permanent.

    Answer:

    Values are elements of life that we hold as important or desirable. They are standards of conduct and guide of human behavior. Values give meaning and strength to a person's character by occupying a central place in his life. Values reflect one’s personal attitude and judgments, decisions and choices, behavior and relationships.

    • Values can be relative as well as absolute.

    Relative values:

    • These are based on individual and societal standards, their likes, dislikes, social norms, tradition, for instance Indian traditional values of ‘Vasudev Kutumbakam’, universal brotherhood, tolerance may contradict with western values of liberalism, individualism and utilitarianism.
    • Values evolve to bring order in the society and are culture specific. They evolve along with the cultures.
      • For ex: The present generation of Indian society is more ambition sensitive showing more assertiveness, instead of Indian traditional values of sacrifice and selflessness.
      • The norms of nuclear family and even live-in relationships are more socially accepted today.

    Absolute values:

    • Universal values like truth, gratitude, peace, non-violence, sympathy, are considered beyond time and space. They are core values and are fundamental. They do not change and remain stable.
    • The standards of conduct differ from person to person, society to society but there can be some values which can be considered universal.
      • For ex: murder is a crime in every society and hence a universal norm.
      • Immanuel Kant considered human dignity as a universal value and one of his categorical imperatives. Similarly, justice for Rawls is an architectonic principle.

    Thus, values can be either universal, relative or dynamic which keeps changing with time. As Einstein once rightly remarked, "Try not to become a man of success but try to become a man of values". Values influence our thoughts, feelings and actions. They guide us to do the right things. Values give direction and firmness to life.


    Solution 5: (b)

    Approach:

    • Describe the significance of power-sharing and participatory decision making for a leader.
    • Give examples for the same.
    • Write a fair Conclusion.

    Answer:

    A leadership based on power-sharing and participatory decision making can be more engaging and democratic. Power-sharing not only builds trust between the leader and the community but it also effectively grooms the next line of leadership. With participatory decision making the leadership can develop and strengthen mutual respect among the diverse perspectives found in a community.

    Power-sharing motivates the people to take up responsibilities and invokes a sense of sincerity towards their duties. When power is shared, members of the community realize that their leadership trusts their efficiency. This further increases the sense of ownership among the individuals for various goals or tasks and reduces the need for constant monitoring. Thus, resulting in a more productive management of resources.

    Participatory decision making strengthens unity and cooperation among the members of the community. It promotes equality and results in more effective ways to find solutions to the problems. A leader who follows the participatory approach in decision making is less likely to digress with her prejudices and can be more empathetic to the different sections of the community. This is because the participatory approach emphasizes on the equitable distribution of power. It also reduces the possibility of exploitation of power by one powerful.

    The leadership under Mahatma Gandhi was based on power-sharing and participatory decision making to a very large extent. The Gandhian leadership led to the inclusion of the working class, tribals, women, Dalits and most of the other marginalized groups of Indian society and effectively added them to the country’s struggle for freedom. It also set a precedent for the next generation of leaders to be more democratic in their leadership.

    An effective leadership not only directs the present generation of community members towards productivity, but it also offers essential foundations for grooming progressive, inclusive and empathetic leadership in the generations to come. This is what then keeps on transforming society for better.


    Solution 6: (a)

    Approach

    • Briefly define emotional intelligence (EI).
    • Identify the role of EI for an administrator.
    • Enumerate the key attributes that an emotionally intelligent administrator should imbibe.
    • Give a conclusion.

    Answer:

    Emotional intelligence refers to the capability of a person to manage and control his or her emotions and possess the ability to control the emotions of others as well.

    Emotional intelligence is a very important skill in leadership. Daniel Goleman has given 5 elements of emotional intelligence, which also form the basis of core attributes an emotionally intelligent administrator should have: -

    • Self-Awareness: Self-awareness is the ability to honestly reflect on and understand one’s emotions, strengths, challenges, motives, values, goals, and dreams.
    • Self-Regulation: It is about controlling one’s emotions i.e. instead of reacting quickly; one can rein in one’s emotions and think before responding.
    • Internal Motivation: It includes one’s personal drive to improve and achieve commitment to one’s goals, initiative, or readiness to act on opportunities, and optimism and resilience.
    • Empathy: It is an awareness of the needs and feelings of others, both individually and in groups, and being able to see things from the point of view of others.
    • Social Skills: It refers to applying empathy and balancing the wants and requirements of others with one’s own. It includes building a good rapport with others.

    Application of EI by an administrator:

    • EI enables a leader to be conscious of personal limitations and use personal strengths to further the work of achieving organizational goals.
    • It allows mental clarity that leadership demands for taking right decisions and deal with conflicting situations rationally.
    • It helps in developing healthy working relationships by better understanding the strengths and weaknesses of co-workers and maintaining a healthy rapport with people.
    • An empathetic individual can read emotional currents, picking up on nonverbal cues such as tone of voice or facial expression, thereby better understanding the needs and demands of other people and acting accordingly.
    • It helps an administrator to persuade, convince, or impact others in order to get them to support a specific agenda or course of action.

    The civil servant as an administrator has the responsibility to act as the vanguard of society. In this context, utilization of emotional intelligence skills can assist him\ her in the attainment of this goal and enhance the quality of decision-making, deal with complex situations effectively.


    Solution 6: (b)

    Approach

    • Briefly introduce the recent events that have brought climate justice back into the public's conscience.
    • Describe the elements that define the current significance of climate justice.
    • Conclude by addressing the significance of shifting toward sustainable development.

    Answer:

    Climate justice is a term used for framing global warming as an ethical and political issue, rather than one that is purely environmental or physical in nature.

    #FridaysForFuture movement inspired by 16-year-old Swedish student and climate activist Greta Thunberg saw participation from youth and school children of more than 123 countries around the world. The basic demand being that governments should reduce carbon emissions before it’s too late. This has renewed the debate of development v/s environmental protection and the need for climate justice.

    Relevance of Climate Justice in present times:

    • Development vs. environment degradation: Measures taken for development largely have a negative impact on the environment. Climate change negatively impacts rainfall patterns, increases food security risks in vulnerable countries, cities sinking due to rising sea levels, etc. IPCC reports have given strict warning about the devastating impacts of rising global temperature beyond 1.5 degree Celsius.
    • Prioritizing investment: Developing countries particularly lack funds for investment for implementing climate change actions. Funds generated through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are inadequate to handle the current crisis. Climate justice provides for the possibilities to prioritise investment around the vulnerabilities of the communities worst affected by climate change.
    • Lobbying by businesses and industrial groups: Oil based companies and big industrialists in fossil fuel based businesses pressurize governments not to take decisions for quick transition to renewable based solutions. Climate justice shifts the debate to the perspective of the suffering communities in the policy framing.
    • Resistance shown by developed countries: With the USA coming out of the Paris deal, and Canadian parliament refusing increased investment in climate change actions, shows the neglect of developed nations and their refusal to accept their historical responsibilities. Climate justice focuses on the inequitable nature of impact of climate change and brings into the picture accountability for actions done by some countries over the other countries.

    Therefore, climate justice demands to look beyond the environmental and ecological consequences of climate change and take strong political action to secure the future generations. It humanizes the effect of climate change and insists on a shift from a discourse on greenhouse gasses and melting ice caps into a civil rights movement with the people and communities most vulnerable to climate impacts at its heart. There is an urgent need for civil society groups to put pressure on governments to take the path of sustainable development and make climate change actions a top priority.


    Solution 7:

    Approach:

    A. The issues involved in the case.

    • Despite the ABC company's project being in concurrence with the government policy, the project is facing resistance from the local people of the area.
    • The following can be the reason for this:
      • Trust deficit between the people and the industrial sector.
      • Xenophobia is a built-in psychological tendency of humans.
      • Unawareness or ignorance of people of Vikas puri despite being an underdeveloped region.
      • Another issue is the fear among people of a rise in costs and changes in the social and economic order with the development.

    B. Steps to resolve the conflict between the company’s goal and the residents’ concerns.

    • First and foremost, there is a need to bring behavioral change in local people towards development.
      • Use of Information, Communication and Education approach.
        • The company needs to bring awareness about the growth and prospects of better returns for local people from the land, better education, healthcare and other benefits for the local people, due to the project.
      • Use of Emotional Intelligence to bridge the trust deficit between the residents and company.
    • Develop local leadership and make them aware of government vision and schemes.
      • Participation of locals in the decision-making will create confidence and remove the fear of change in the social and economic order.
    • Skill development programs should be made part of the CSR initiatives of the company.
    • Though these may be short term measures to tackle the conflict between development vs community, its long-term solution lies in Community-Driven Development (CDD) approach.

    Solution 8:

    Approach

    • Give a brief introduction of the various components of the cases.
    • List the parties involved.
    • Mention the possibilities that the military team has.
    • Pick the strategy you would implement if you were the commander of the military team.

    Answer:

    The given case highlights on moral dilemma before a military team operating a drone that would drop a bomb to kill a terrorist cell, but with a collateral damage of killing a little girl selling bread. The dilemma is between the:

    • Utilitarian perspective of providing “Greatest good to the greatest number of people” and thus choosing to drop the bomb to save hundreds of lives over the cost of the life of one little innocent girl.
    • Deontological perspective of not launching the bomb that would kill the innocent Girl because “it is simply immoral to kill” even if the killing is done for good consequence of saving hundreds of lives.

    Stakeholders:

    • Terrorist cell preparing for an attack
    • Little Girl within the blast radius
    • Military Team which is operating the drone.
    • Hundreds of people whose lives are under threat.
    • Nation/Society

    a) Available options to the military team are:

    • Go ahead with the mission and drop the Bomb:
      • Pros- Save hundreds of people by killing terrorists and stopping them to launch any attack. This will fulfill their military duty of saving the nation from any terrorist attack. This will also bring appreciation to the military team from the community as well as from their organisation that would possibly bring them some rewards and promotions.
      • Cons- This will kill an innocent little Girl as a collateral damage. It may remain a lifelong guilt for the team members who could not justify their inner conscience of killing the girl.

    About the mission:

    • Pros: It will save the innocent little girl.
    • Cons: It will leave the terrorist cell who have the potential to kill hundreds of lives by launching attacks. Along with this, the military team may be levelled with the tag of failure and in every terrorist attack by these terrorists in the future, if any, will fill them with huge regret.

    b) As the head of the military team, I would have a moral dilemma between the Positive duty of potentially saving hundreds of lives by ordering to drop the bomb and the negative duty of killing an innocent little girl. My possible actions would be:

    • I would prefer to hold the mission on standby until the girl is out of the blast radius since my conscience would not allow me to order to kill any innocent life. This decision may have disastrous consequences for the nation of potentially putting hundreds of lives at risk by letting go a terrorist cell. It would also bring an enquiry from my team to explain our actions.
    • I would make every attempt to first move the girl out of the blast radius, if possible, as quick as possible and then drop the bomb. For this, if possible, I would contact the ground based local intelligence or police authority to detain the girl quickly and safely move her out of the blast radius. Or create any other distractions around the girl’s location to drive her out of blast radius.
    • If it is not possible by any means to move the girl out of the blast radius, I still would not order the dropping of the bomb since there still would be a chance to kill those terrorists in the future, but if the girl is killed, she could not be brought back. Further, any attack launched by those terrorists could be effectively neutralized by proper strategies to save those hundreds of lives. Thus, it still may be a win-win situation.

    Solution 9:

    Approach

    • Give a brief introduction by highlighting the overall issue of gender inequality.
    • Describe the actions that may be taken to eliminate gender bias in the workplace.
    • Make an appropriate conclusion.

    Answer:

    Gender discrimination is a manifestation of social prejudices. A traditional country like India with a patriarchal social history has many prejudices which fuel discrimination even in workplace.

    These gender biases have to be eradicated by moral persuasion, bringing about gender sensitivity and adopting exemplary standards of ethical behavior.

    Possible steps taken by young female officer:

    • Leading by example: She should try to bring gender diversity and gender sensitivity in her own team and colleagues at work. E.g., publicly congratulating a female colleague on her achievements, standing up for other women employees.
    • Anything without leadership commitment is not sustained over a period of time. It will promote good work culture and set the standards of behavior for the entire department.
    • Maintaining discipline and efficiency in work: Sooner or later other officials will appreciate it. It will also influence other female subordinate staff and can enthuse a new sense of spirit in them.
    • Increase social interactions: She should encourage interaction of the male colleagues with her female colleagues to make them aware of each other's virtues and ability. This shall develop a sense of confidence and reliability in each other.
    • Moral Persuasion: Along with the pictures of our national heroes like Mahatma Gandhi, she can adorn the walls of the office with portraits of our women Bravehearts from history like Rani Laxmibai, Sarojini Naidu and Indira Gandhi. This will keep reminding the colleagues about the unparalleled contribution of women too in making our nation.
    • Using emotional intelligence: To understand and manage your own emotions as well as those of others and thus make good decisions at work. It will also help in attaining a work-life balance.
    • Determination to service: The foundational value of the organization should be a motivating factor for the employees. When things get settled, she can introduce minor changes.
    • Inviting real-life achievers to the office: With the help of self-help groups, real-life achievers can be invited to the office so that female members can be motivated.
    • Patriarchal society can be changed for the better with a gradual approach because when confronted directly, there may arise more complex issues. Since work culture is related to the attitude and behavior of people, therefore, it takes time to change.
    • Gender-sensitization of male members can be done through debates and discussions. The persisting prejudices can be won over by social influence and persuasion, it can be won over. By courage of conviction/exemplary behavior/being receptive to patriarchal nuances, over a period of time change can be introduced as Kiran Bedi did in the case of Tihar Jail reforms.

    Solution 10:

    Approach

    • Identify the numerous conflicts of interest in this situation.
    • Talk about your obligations as a lawyer and a citizen.
    • Determine the path of action and its advantages and disadvantages.
    • Decide on the best course of action to take as your conclusion.

    Answer:

    • Conflict of interest:
      • Professional Vs public:
        • Loyalty/protection of interests of the client and independent judgment are essential elements in the lawyer’s relationship with a client.
        • Client-attorney privilege.
      • Duty towards nation
        • As a responsible citizen of the country, it is our duty to aid the investigating agencies.
    • Lawyer Vs moral agent:
      • A lawyer is a technician skilled in navigating the law solely for purposes of advancing a client’s legal interests.
      • The moral agent attorney sees the practice of law more in terms of truth and administration of justice. The lawyer is, after all, an officer of the court, not merely the client’s advocate.
    • Responsibility as a lawyer and as a responsible citizen of the country:
      • Responsibilities to the legal system and rule of law that are the foundation of our political economy and constitutional democracy, including contributing to access to justice, strengthening the rule of law and legal institutions, and supporting efforts by other lawyers to uphold their own professional responsibilities.
      • Responsibilities to the institution in which lawyers work—e.g., corporations, law firms, and law schools—and to the people employed by such institutions, such as a corporation’s global workforce or a law firm’s or law school’s employees.
      • Responsibilities to secure other broader public goods and enhance sound private ordering— complementary to the rule of law—in order to create a safe, fair, and a just society in which individuals and institutions (including major corporations, major law firms, and major law schools) can thrive over the long-term.
    • Options I have:
      • With all might, I will try to save my client: It will be in accordance with the Indian Evidence Act. The Attorney Client privilege is the fulcrum of the relationship between a client and his/her lawyer. It is one of the oldest forms of protection under the privacy doctrine and a fundamental right in all democracies. It is a permanent privilege which commences when the client initiates the process for seeking advice. Its intent is to enable a full and frank disclosure to his lawyer who in turn can discharge his duties towards his client.
        • In doing so, not only I will follow my professional ethics but also my duty towards my client will be fulfilled.
        • However, if the aforementioned crime is not under my scope of work, then I will not hesitate to share data with the government agencies.
    • I will wait for the court’s decision: In accordance with rule of law, if the judicial process demands submission of data, I will consult with my partners about the same. If they agree, the information will be submitted to the judicial process, if they don’t agree then I will try to build consensus about the issue and will proceed accordingly.
    • Sending an anonymous letter: I will send an anonymous letter to agencies with the available data. However, in doing so I will be violating my professional code of ethics. Seen in a deontological perspective, it wouldn’t be right. But from a utilitarian perspective, it will serve the purpose of both saving my firm’s reputation, as well as my obligation towards the nation.
    • Become a whistleblower: Organizational and professional ethics are designed to encourage moral autonomy, individual responsibility, and organizational support for the wellbeing of society as a whole. In such a case, it will be appropriate to share the data with agencies.

    As a responsible citizen, it is the duty of any person to look for the well-being of the country. In this well-being premise, the economic system is very important. Incidences of such nature can shake the very foundation of a country. Moreover, not punishing such a person will give impetus to other persons to commit crimes. In pursuance of these objectives, data of the offender must be shared by whatever means possible.


    Solution 11:

    Approach

    • Begin by broadly highlighting your understanding of the case study.
    • Bring out various ethical issues involved from the facts mentioned above.
    • Provide suggestions for ethically tackling the issue-by incorporating the ideals of democracy and ethical conduct in public life.

    Answer:

    Social media has become an excellent medium for connecting people from across the world and enabling us to express opinions even on matters which remotely affect us. It is due to this that people, especially from democratic countries, freely comment on happenings in other countries. For a country like India, its biggest strength i.e. democracy remains its biggest vulnerability.

    There have been attempts by vested interest groups to undermine the democratic image and goodwill enjoyed by India. In such a scenario, suspicion of foul play by the government in the above case seems justified to some extent.

    Considering all these factors, there are numerous ethical issues that involve all stakeholders:

    • Dereliction of political and moral duty: In their failure to communicate their intent and prospects of the bill to the apprehensive citizens, the political class has apparently failed in fulfilling its duty. Mahatma Gandhi long ago gave a talisman to the public servants- to think of the last man before initiating any action.
    • Violation of constitutional traditions and practices: In the act of passing the bill the government has seemingly overlooked few parliamentary procedures. This compromises constitutional practices, and democratic obligations/ duties. Besides this, a law that hasn’t been subject to the proper constitutional mechanism lacks legitimacy in fulfilling its objectives.
    • Compromise of personal integrity: On the part of celebrities and activists, extending support to protests without acquainting themselves with the pros and cons of the said act, reflects a lack of personal integrity. People who command influence over the public should be cautious, not reckless in voicing their opinions. They should be emotionally intelligent and be aware of ethical conduct in public life.

    Measures to deal with the issue in an effective way:

    • People’s right to self-expression is not restricted by borders and in the age of the internet, opinions can not be restrained from domestic and foreign citizens on any matter.
    • Rather than a combative approach, soft- measures relying on diplomacy, use of media and influence of diaspora could be used in the above situation. Like when the constitutional status of J&K was altered, the government used such tools for presenting a clear picture of the world.
    • The involvement of Indian public influencers created doubts in the above case. Instead, political executives should have taken the lead as this would have twin benefits- firstly, it would target unfavorable opinion at the international level. Secondly, it would fill the communication gap between people and politicians which is one of the reasons responsible for protests.
    • The suspicion of foul play should be investigated with the help of foreign countries’ law enforcement agencies and conjectures should be kept away from public space, till conclusive evidence emerges as this may create false perception amongst people and may even create a picture that people who are protesting democratically are in someway instigated by inimical powers. This will lead to polarization, political acrimony, name-calling and hatred towards groups involved in protests.

    Governance and policies in a democracy are inextricably linked to ethical considerations, and in case of discontent or conflict, the resolution to the issue also lies in ethical conduct by all stakeholders. The existence of such conditions strengthens the trust of citizens in government and constitutional means.


    Solution 12:

    Approach:

    • Mention stakeholders involved
    • Give a brief introduction about the main problem.
    • Outline the options you have in response to the minister's suggestion.
    • Conclude by discussing the role of the government to maintain a balance between national security and the infringement of individual rights.

    Answer:

    Stakeholders:

    • Police officer - An expert in cyber intelligence.
    • Minister - Who wants to snoop on the opposition leaders.
    • Opposition leaders.
    • General public - As any action by the government involves concern for the public.

    In this case, an ethical dilemma is involved in choosing between an order given by authority and public service ethics. The Minister's request to snoop illegally on the chats and emails of opposition leaders to push them into defensive mode are creating an ethical dilemma for me whether I should follow his request or not.

    In the above situation, I may take the following course of action:

    • I can bring this issue before my immediate senior and request him to suggest a way out.
    • I can respectfully decline the minister’s request to snoop illegally as it will provide him an undue political advantage over opposition leaders. Also, I can not go against the law because as a police officer it is my duty to uphold the law. So, as a cyber expert and responsible officer, it is imperative to find the truth. Blindly following the minister’s order will imply a departure from the integrity, objectivity, and impartiality of the government servant, who has been appointed to serve the public with dedication.

    By following the above-mentioned steps, this issue can be handled to a great extent in a just and ethical manner.

    In this case, questions can be asked about spying on citizens in the name of national security in a democratic system. Supreme Court in its 2017 judgment in K.S. Putta swamy v. Union of India declared that “privacy is a fundamental right” guaranteed by the Constitution. In the wake of this decision, it seems unjust and unethical if the government espionages its own citizens in the name of national security. However, surveillance seems essential to ensure national security and preempt terrorist threats, and it is in the very nature of surveillance that it must take place outside the public eye. Since it is clear that the right to privacy is not an absolute right, the government is justified while violating it. But it needs to strike a pragmatic balance between the competing values of privacy and security.

    Unchecked and unaccounted data collection and examination, especially by government entities could lay the foundations of the surveillance state, hence reforms in the Indian surveillance regime should incorporate ethics of surveillance which considers the moral aspects of how surveillance is employed. Further technology must be used as a tool to facilitate national and individual rights. The use of technology must ensure accountability in its application so it is imperative for the public servant to be just and honest while having such expertise.

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