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State PCS

Know Your State

Know Your State

Uttar Pradesh

  • 31 Oct 2018
  • 78 min read

State: Uttar Pradesh (U.P.)

Formed: 1 April 1937-as United province

Statehood: 26 January 1950-rechristened as Uttar Pradesh

Capital: Lucknow

Governor: Ram Naik

Chief Minister: Yogi Adityanath

Deputy Chief Minister(s): Kesav Prasad Maurya, Dr. Dinesh Sharma

Official language: Hindi

Other languages: Urdu, Awadhi, Bundeli, Bhojpuri, etc.

Major Religions: Hinduism, Islam

Area: 2,40,928 Square km (4th largest in India)

Population: 19,9,812,341 (Most populous in India)

Population density: 829 per square km

Sex Ratio: 912 per thousand

Literacy rate: 69.72%

Male literacy: 79.24%

Female literacy: 59.26%

GDP (2018-19): Rs 14.89 Lakh Crore

High Court: Allahabad High Court

Districts: 75

Cities and Towns: 915

Development blocks: 822

Nagar Nigams: 17

Members of Lok Sabha from U.P.: 80

Members of Rajya Sabha from U.P.: 31

Members of Legislative Assembly: 404

Members of Legislative Council: 100

State Animal: Barasingha

State Bird: Sarus Crane

Principal Crops: Paddy, Wheat,Barley, Millet, Maize, Urad (Black Gram), Moong (Green Gram) Arhar etc.

Principal Minerals: Lime-Stone, Dolomite, Soap Stone, Gypsum, Bauxite, Glass-sand, manganese, Non-plastic fire clay etc.

Principal Handicrafts: Chikan-work, Embroidery, wood work, wooden toys and furniture, Clay -toys, carpet weaving, Silk & Brassware work.

Principal Folklores: Birha, Chitee, Kajri, Phaag, Rasia, Alha, Pooran Bhagat, Bhartrahari

Principal Rivers: Ganga, Yamuna, Gomti, Ram Ganga, Ghagra, Betwa, Ken

Principal Folkdances: Charkula, Karma, Pandav, Pai-danda, Tharu, Dhobia, Raai, Shaira etc

Places of historical importance: Piparhava, Kaushambi, Shravasti, Sarnath (varanasi), kushinagar, Chitrakoot, Lucknow, Agra, Jhansi, Meerut etc

Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) earlier christened as United Provinces is a state located in the north-central Gangetic plains of India. U.P. has always held a high political significance in Indian democracy because it’s home to the largest share of Indian population and it portrays dynamic social demographics too. U.P. was created in the year 1937 by the British regime under the name of United Provinces and post independence it was renamed as Uttar pradesh in 1950. Lucknow district serves as the capital of U.P.. A total of 18 divisions and 75 districts constitute this state, whose northern portion was carved out in the year 2000 to form Uttarakhand, the 27th state of India. Agriculture is the primary contributor in the economy of the state and it’s also known as the Rice bowl of India.

  • State feature highly rugged terrain and their elevation ranges from 300 to 5000 mts.
  • The Siwalik range in U.P. plummets down to the Bhabhar area, which is a porous bed of coarse pebbles and boulders brought down by the rivers flowing down the Siwalik hills.
  • The river-streams tend to sink in these porous beds of sediments.
  • Bhabhar tract lies along the periphery of Siwalik foothills and it transitions into the Terai region gradually.
  • This transition belt is termed ‘Terai and Bhabhar area’ and it is marked by rich forests and various riverstreams


Location and Landform (Physiography)

  • Uttar Pradesh is situated between 23°52’N and 31°28’N latitudes and 77°3′ and 84°39’E longitudes.
  • It shares its national boundaries with 9 other states i.e., Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana on the north west; Uttarakhand in the north; Rajasthan touches U.P. from the west; Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh on the south; Jharkhand to the south-east & Bihar lies in its east.
  • Internationally U.P. is landlocked by Nepal on the north. With an area of 29.4 m ha it is the fourth largest state in Indian subcontinent.
  • It is also the most populous State.

Geomorphologically Uttar Pradesh can be divided into 3 major topographical regions:

  1. Siwalik foothills of Himalayas and the Terai region border U.P. on the north.
  2. Gangetic plains constitute the major central portion of the state.
  3. Vindhya Range and plateau lie in a relatively smaller part of southern U.P.

Siwalik Hills and Terai Region

  • Siwalik Range forms the southern foothills of the Himalayas which border U.P. on the north.
  • The lowland area dispersed with marshes, thick forests, swamps rich in clay and tall grasslands that runs parallel to the bhabhar tract is called Terai region. This area is composed of fine alluvium primarily sand, clay, silt and gravel.
  • As the rivers flow down the slopes of Bhabhar and course through the relatively planar areas of Terai the sediments are deposited in shallow beds, and the sunken river streams of Bhabhar reemerge on the surface, causing massive floods.
  • Width of Bhabhar — 8-16 km
  • Width of Terai — 15-30 km

Gangetic Plains

  • Gangetic plains are characterised by a flat topography and highly fertile alluvial soil.
  • The two-river system called Ganges which includes Ganga and Yamuna and their tributaries, that flow down the Himalayas, is responsible for laying in alluvial deposits which make the soil of Gangetic plains highly fertile and suitable for growing crops like rice, wheat, barley, gram etc.
  • These plains span about three-fourths of the total area of the state, stretching from east to west and covering most of its central portion.
  • Its flat topography comprises of several physical features like rivers, lakes, ponds, elevation ranging from 60 mts in the east to 300 mts in the north-west and a gradient of 2 m/sq km.
  • The Gangetic plains are constituted by the Ganga-Yamuna Doab, the Ganges plains, Terai and the Ghaghra plains; and this entire expanse of alluvial terrain is divided into three sub-regions:
    • Eastern tract: The eastern tract of Gangetic plains is classified as scarcity region as it is often afflicted with famines and floods, and the agricultural lands of this region don’t receive adequate irrigation. A total of 14 districts fall under this tract.
    • Central tract: It is a well irrigated tract but suffers from water logging.
    • Western tract: This zone is well developed in terms of Agriculture because of excellent water resources and irrigation systems.

Vindhya Range And Plateau Region

  • Vindhyas are a discontinuous range of hills and mountains.
  • The southernmost stratum of Gangetic plains in U.P. is rendered by hard and varied topography of hills, highlands and plateaus.
  • With an average elevation of 300 mts, this is a low-lying range that receives sparse rains and is devoid of adequate water resources, thus farmers in this region resort to dry-farming.
  • Following 4 divisions fall under the canopy of this region:
    • Bundelkhand plateau – Jhansi, Jalaun, Banda, Hamirpur
    • Tehsils of Allahabad district
    • Mirzapur district
    • Chakia Tehsil of Varanasi district


Major Source of Surface Water: Ganges and its tributaries flowing from northwest to the southeast direction.

Basin: Ganga sub-basin of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basin

Major Rivers: Ganges, Yamuna, Ghagra, Gomti, Gandak, Son, Kosi, Sarda,etc

Hydrogeological units: 1. Bhabhar; 2. Terai; 3.Central Ganga plains; 4.Marginal alluvial plains; 5. Southern Peninsular zone (Starting from north to south successively)

Rainfall: 1279 mm

  • 85% average annual rainfall occurs in South-west monsoon season.
  • Northern and Eastern regions receive highest rainfall, which gradually decreases as we move to the southern and western U.P.

Gross Groundwater withdrawal: 5.28 mham(million hectare metres)

  • Uttar Pradesh is the largest user of Groundwater repositories.
  • Alluvial plains constitute a very rich reservoir of groundwater, in form of multiple aquifer system.
  • Groundwater repositories are scarce in Bundelkhand.

Modes of Irrigation: 

  1. Large tracts of canals and Reservoirs, constructed on the banks of northern and southern tributaries of Ganges, irrigate a major part of the plains. There is no reservoir on the bank of Ganges.
  2. Groundwater is used for irrigating few ‘scarcity areas’ through borewells.
  3. Rainfed irrigation is limited to the eastern tract.

Authorities for water resource management:

  • State Water Resources Agency (SWARA) is responsible for management, planning & sectoral allocation of water resources to diverse sectors viz. Drinking water, transportation, Agriculture, Industrial Development, Hydro Power,Entertainment and Thermal Power Production.
  • Water Resource Department holds the responsibility of construction, maintenance, regulation of major & medium irrigation projects, flood control & drainage works.

Following are the major rivers of Uttar Pradesh

Sl. No.









Gangotri, Uttarakhand

Ganges Delta

2525 Km


Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, W.B.





1376 km

Tajewala Barrage Dam, Sob river dam

Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi



Mapchachungo glacier, Tibet


1080 km





Vindhya range



Rajghat Dam Parichha Dam, Matalita Dam

Madhya Pradesh



Janapav hills, Vindhya range


960 km

Rana Pratap Sagar Dam, Gandhi Sagar Dam, Jawahar Sagar Dam

Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan





784 km

Bansagar Dam, Indrapuri Barrage

Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar





350 km

Pancheshwar Dam




Gomat Taal


900 km




Ahirgawan Kaimur range, Jbalpur


427 km

Madhya Pradesh



Nhubine Himal Glacier


630 km

Tibet, Nepal



Sun Kosi


729 km

Tibet, Nepal, Bihar

Lakes in Uttar Pradesh

  • Lakes in Uttar Pradesh serve the water needs of villages,small towns & remote areas.
  • Several species of migratory birds like siberian cranes, greater Flamingo, Surkhab, etc flock these lakes every year.
  • Forest Department of Uttar Pradesh is responsible for the maintenance of the lakes in the state.

Following are the major lakes in Uttar pradesh:

Sl. No.






Barua Sagar Tal


Artificial Lake

Near Fort of Bundelkhand


Bela Sagar Tal

Kulpahar, Belatal

Artificial lake

Locally k/as Bela Taal.


Chittaura Jheel

Chittaura village, Bharaich

Natural lake

Tera nadi flows from it.


Darwan lake

Hathpakad & Katehri

Natural lake



Gokul Barrage

Gokul, Mathura




Keetham Lake

Agra-Delhi highway

Artificial Lake

Declared National Bird Sanctuary


Moti Jheel

Benajhabar, Kanpur

Artificial lake

Referred to as ‘Lungs of Kanpur’


Raja Ka Tal

NH 19


Also k/as Bara Taal.


Ramgarh Tal Lake





Shekha Jheel

Shekha village, near Aligarh

Artificial lake

Popular for the migratory birds.

Dams and Reservoirs in Uttar Pradesh

  • Prime Objective: Power generation, storage, drinking water supply, irrigation.
  • Major Projects: Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar dam, Parichha Dam.
  • Some other Projects: Matalita Dam, Bhainsora Dam, Bachara Dam, Bhagwanpur Dam, Baghla Dam, Chittaurgarh Dam, Ganeshpur Dam, etc.
  • Largest man-made reservoir in India: Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar Dam.

Following is a list of Dams/Reservoirs constructed in U.P.:

Sl. No.






Rihand/Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar Dam

Rihand-tributary of Son

Pipri, Sonbhadra

Electricity generation


Parichha Dam

Betwa River

Jhansi-Kanpur NH25

Reservoir, Irrigation, Water Sports


Matalita Dam

Betwa River

Lalitpur District



Jamini Dam

Jamni River

Mahrauni, Lalitpur



Rohini Dam

Rohini River




Shahzad Dam

Shahzad River

Outskirts of Lalitpur



Govind Sagar Dam

Shahzad River




Sarda Sagar Dam

Sharda river

Puranpur, Pilibhit



Climate Type: Tropical monsoon or Humid subtropical with dry winters

Temperature range: 0℃ – 50℃


  1. Summer/Thunderstorm/Pre-monsoon
  2. South-West Monsoon
  3. Retreating Monsoon
  4. Winter

Meteorological Subdivisions: U.P. East & U.P. West

  • Summer Season
    • Temperature range: 45℃ – 48℃
    • Span: March to May
    • Features: Hot & Dry, Dust laden storms, Low Relative Humidity
  • South-West Monsoon Season
    • Temperature Range: 40℃ – 45℃
    • Span: June-September
    • Rainfall: 1279 mm (85%of average annual rainfall)
  • Winter Season
    • Temperature Range: 0℃ – 4℃
    • Span: October – February
    • Features: Foggy conditions
  • As Gangetic plains take up majority of area in the state, therefore climatic conditions are more or less uniform throughout the state, except for a few regional fluctuations.
  • For instance Western U.P. exhibits semi-arid/steppe climate due to low reception of precipitation.
  • Non-Uniform and unpredictable rainfall pattern causes recurrent droughts and floods in eastern tract.
  • Due to the effect of Western disturbances, light rainfall occurs in the months of october through december; it is termed as Retreating South-West Monsoon.


Major Soil Type: Alluvial Soil

  • A deep layer of Alluvium is deposited by the Ganges and its tributaries as they flow down the Himalayas.

Soil Type in the Himalayan Crown of the state:

  • There is no level land available and the terrain varies excessively in the Himalayan region.
  • Major soil forming rocks are: Granite, Schists, Gneiss, Shales, Sandstones, Phyllite, Quartzite, etc.
  • The soils in the greater Himalayas, the lesser Himalayas and Shiwaliks vary from sandy to loamy, are slightly acidic and of Low Available Water Capacity (AWC) type.
  • Crops like Wheat, Maize, Rice and Pulses are generally cultivated in these areas.

Soils of Gangetic Plains:

  • Soils develop from the Alluvium beds deposited by the Ganga, Yamuna and their tributaries in the vastb Gangetic plains.
  • The soils in this region are coarse loamy/fine loamy/fine silty (calcareous & non-calcareous). These feature slight alkalinity and exhibit deep soil depth as well as high content of organic matter, plant nutrients.
  • These have a good water holding capacity and are well drained.
  • Wheat, Rice, sugarcane, gram, maize, sorghum, barley and pea are the major crops cultivated in the alluvial soil of Gangetic plains.

Soils of Vindhyachal Highlands and plateaus:

  • This region exhibits hilly terrain and arid conditions.
  • Soils in this region are generally developed from Vindhyan rocks that include gneiss, granites, sandstone, quartzite, limestone, dolomite etc.
  • The soil type is fine loamy with stoniness and gravelliness. The soils of this region possess mixed red and black hues.
  • These are slightly alkaline in nature, are excessively drained and Low Available Water Capacity (AWC).
  • The major crops planted in the region are – Wheat, sorghum, bajra, gram and arhar.


  • Due to its varied climate and relief, Uttar Pradesh has a wealth of Flora and Fauna, adding to the abundance of natural resources in the state, despite widespread deforestation and poaching.

Forest Cover: 21720 sq km

Following are the types of forests:

Type of Forest



Tropical Moist Deciduous forest


  • 100 to 150 cm. of rainfall annually
  • average temperature between 26℃ to 27℃
  • considerable degree of humidity

Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest

Central eastern And Western Plains

  • moist regions

Tropical Thorny Forest

South-western U.P.

  • low annual rainfall (50-70 cms)
  • mean annual temperature between 25℃ to 27℃
  • low humidity (less than 47 percent)

Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests: Sal, Palas, Amaltas, Bel, fig etc. Neem, Peepal, Sheesham, Mango, Jamun, Babool, Imli (Tamarind) etc

Tropical Thorny Forests: Thorny trees, mainly, Babool, Thorny, legumes and Euphorias.

Other Common Plants: Rhododendrons, betula, silver fir, spruce, deodar, chir, oak, sal, gigantic haldu, dhak, teak, mahua, salai, sisso, chironji and tendu.

Medicinal Herbs: Rauwolfia Sarpagandha, Viala serpens, Podophyllum, hexandrum and aephecra gerardiana.

  • These plants are widely used in industries for various applications, for instance Bamboo is used predominantly in Paper industries, Babul is used to prepare the tanning material, Gutel and Semal are employed in matchwood industry, Kanju is a raw material for plywood industry.


  • Uttar Pradesh is replete with Avifauna (birds). Terrestrial animals, amphibians and reptiles are also found in abundance here.

State Animal: Barasingha or Swamp Deer

  • The antlers of these Stags are made up of 12 tines or sometimes upto 20 tines.

Largest Wildlife Reserve: Dudhwa National Park (500 sq km)

  • It is situated in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is the only place in U.P. where both Tigers and Rhinos can be spotted together.

Most Common Birds: Crow, pigeon, dove, jungle fowl, black partridge, house sparrow, peafowl, blue jay, parakeet, kite, myna, quail, bulbul, snipe, comb duck, grey duck, whistling teal, kingfisher and woodpecker.

Terrestrial Animals: Tiger, leopard, wild bear, sloth bear, elephant, gond, para, chinkara, sand grouse, musk deer, brown bear, chital, sambhar, jackal, porcupine, jungle cat, hare, squirrel, monitor, lizard and fox.

Reptiles: Bamania, Lizard, Cobra, Krait, Crocodile, Pit-viper, Goh, Tortoise and Dhaman.

Aquatic Animals-Fishes: Mahaser, Saul, Parthan, Vittal, Mirgal, Labi, Cuchia, Einghi, Trout, Hilsa, Tengan, Rasela, Rohu, Kata, Mangur, Eel and Mirror Carp.

Endangered Species: Lions of the Gangetic plain and rhinoceros of the terai region Black buck, musk deer, swamp deer, four horned antelope and mural pheasants.

Major Wildlife sanctuaries and national parks: Dudhwa National Park (Tiger Reserve), Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Bird Wildlife Sanctuary, Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Lakh Bahosi Bird Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahavir Swami Wildlife Sanctuary, National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary, etc.

Following is a list of most prominent National Parks, and Bird Sanctuaries of U.P.:

Sl. No.

Name of National Park

Special Species

Important Remarks


Dudhwa National Park

Bengal Tiger, swamp deer, one-horned rhinoceros, hog deer, cheetal and many species of birds.

Dudhwa National Park is the only National Park and Tiger Reserve representative of Terai-bhabar Biogeographic subdivision of the Upper Gangetic Plains It was declared a Tiger Reserve in the late 1980s and ever since it remains a safe hub for the rare Bengal Tigers in India.


National Chambal Sanctuary

Indian Skimmers, rare turtle species, crocodiles, rare Gangetic dolphin

It is a riverine sanctuary along the Chambal River


Pilibhit Tiger Reserve & Wildlife Sanctuary

tiger, leopard, swamp deer, hispid hare, and Bengal floricans

Its northern border lies along the India-Nepal border while the southern boundary is marked by the river Sharada and Khakra.


Mahavir Swami Wildlife Sanctuary

leopard, nilgai, wild boar, and sambhar

A unique feature of this Sanctuary is a group of 41 Jain Temples covering an area of approximately 8 acres in its midst


A Brief glimpse at the vivid history of U.P.:

  • Because of its strategic and prominent position in the Indo-Gangetic plains Uttar Pradesh remains the epicentre of the historical advances in India.
  • The history of Uttar Pradesh is very much associated with the broad history of India. It dates back to 100000 years.
  • Formerly the area of Uttar Pradesh was occupied by the Aryans or the Dasas and their main occupation was agriculture. The Aryans, through conquests occupied the adjoining areas too.
  • Aryans laid the foundations of their civilisation in the region. It was during the Aryan inhabitation in the region that epics of Mahabharata, Ramayana, Brahmanas and Puranas were written.
  • The state is the heart of Mahabharata war. The Kosala Kingdom of Ayodhya is said to have been incarnated in the city of Mathura.
  • It was around the middle of the 1st millennium BC that Uttar Pradesh saw the advent of Lord Buddha and the spread of Buddhism. Around the time Lord Buddha delivered his first sermon at Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath when Uttar Pradesh was under the Magadh rule. Here Chaukhandi Stupa marks the spot where Lord Buddha met his disciples.
  • Besides Kuru, Panchalas, Vatsas and Videhas etc. formed the early region of the state. These regions were known as Madhyadesa. During Ashoka`s reign, several public welfare works were taken up. During the rule of Magadha Empire, Buddhism and Jainism developed in this region. It was a period of administrative and economic advancement.


  • Old Stone Age sites in U.P.: Siwalik hills.
  • Archaeologists have been successful in making crucial prehistoric discoveries in the state of U.P.
  • Following are the noteworthy finds belonging to prehistoric period:

Prehistoric Findings

Corresponding Period

Remnants of modern Hunter-Gatherers

85000 & 72000 years ago

Skeletons of Hunter-Gatherers

Middle stone age (10550–9550 BC)

Evidence of domestic cattles like Sheeps & Goats and proof of initiation of Agriculture

Neolithic Age (6000 BC-4000 BC)

chariot, four copper antenne swords, copper crowns, greyware pottery, wheels,ornaments, helmets, shields, two daggers

Bronze Age (3300-1200 BC)

Advanced agrarian findings

Period of Indus Valley Civilisation, Iron Age

Ancient and Mythological History

Vedic Era

  • The ancient significance of Uttar Pradesh is surmised through the epics written in the Vedic Period – Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  • These two Epics chronicle the Gangetic plains of Vedic Era.
  • According to Ramayana, Kosala kingdom whose capital was Ayodhya where Lord Ram reigned was situated in the present-day Uttar Pradesh.
  • A lot of significant events of Mahabharata occurred in U.P. —
    • The birth of Lord Krishna (eighth incarnation of Lord Vishnu) in Mathura.
    • Whole Mahabharata Saga is set in the Hastinapur region of Uttar Pradesh.
    • The trails of Mahabharata War under King Yudhishthira culminated in the Kuru Mahajanapada.

Mahajanapada Era

  • The Vedic Era gave way to the advent of Iron Age, beginning from 1000 BC.
  • The Gangetic plains gained in their importance during this period and became a focal centre of power as 7 of the 16 empires strived to acquire hold of this region.
  • Popular rulers of the region: Chandragupta, Ashoka, Samudragupta, ChandraGupta II, Harshavardhana
  • Following are the several empires that occupied the region:


Reigning Period


320-200 BC


100-250 AD


350-600 AD


590-647 AD


650-1036 AD

Delhi Sultanate

1206-1320 AD

  • Kannauj empire was one of the most prominent rulers of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab.
  • It marked the revival of Hinduism.
  • It rose to power after the defeat of Guptas at the hands of Huns. Harshavardhana helped the empire expand its reach to the regions of Punjab in the north, Gujarat in the west, Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south.
  • Harshavardhana's demise marked the decline of Kannauj empire as Gurjara-Pratiharas took over the reigns of the region.
  • Famous philosopher Shankara established the famous Badrinath Temple on his visit to Varanasi.
  • Rashtrakutas also invaded the Kannauj kingdom from 8th to the 10th century.
  • Delhi Sultanate ruled the present-day U.P. for a span of 300 years since 1200 AD.
  • Uttar Pradesh saw the descent of 5 dynasties of Delhi Sultanate.
  • Following are the Delhi Sultanate rulers who held the reigns of Uttar Pradesh:


Ruling Period











Buddhist Era

  • By the 2nd century BC Hinduism had gained foothold in U.P. which advocated ideas of Brahamanism.
  • Around this period Buddha emerged onto the religious scene and by delivering his first sermon at Sarnath near Varanasi he initiated a revolutionary religion of Buddhism.
  • Buddhism spread its canopy to faraway places like China and Japan.
  • Kushinagara is accredited as the place where Buddha attained Nirvana.
  • Buddhism got a strong impetus under the rule of Ashoka and saw greatest development in the 6th BC under the reign of Gupta empire.

Medieval history/Muslim Reign

  • Babur, a descendant of Timur and Gengis khan invaded Delhi, defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and founded the Mughal empire that stretched from Afghanistan to Bangladesh, with its power centralised in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Mughals were of central Asian Turk descent.
  • Mughal King Humayan was defeated by Sher Shah Suri of Suri dynasty, and thus the control of Uttar Pradesh was renounced to the Suri dynasty.
  • Sher Shah Suri and Islam Shah Suri ruled from Gwalior as their capital.
  • The death of Islam Shah Suri paved way for Hemu, who was known as Hemchandra Vikramaditya, to rule over Delhi.
  • In the second battle of Panipat, most prominent king of Mughal dynasty-Akbar seized power from Hemu and made Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra his capital.
  • Akbar’s reign is regarded as the reign of cultural, and art development.
  • Fall of the Mughal empire, led to the rules of Marathas and Rohillas as well as their mutual rivalry that ended with the second Anglo-Indian war as Marathas lost most of their reign to the British Empire including Uttar Pradesh.
  • Prominent landmarks belonging to the Muslim Rule in U.P.:
    • Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan is the greatest architectural achievement.
    • Buland Darwaja at Fatehpur Sikri.
    • Bhakti sect founded by Ramananda, a Brahmana.
    • Kabir preached unity for all religions.

Modern history and British Rule:

  • The East India Company wrested the powers from various empires and united them under the Bengal Presidency during the early 18th century. It included the provinces of the nawabs, the Scindias of Gwalior, and the Gurkhas of Nepal.
  • In 1834 the northern territories were chucked off from Bengal Presidency to form Presidency of Agra, which was later rechristened as North Western Provinces. Its capital switched between Agra and Allahabad.
  • 1857 saw the first revolution by Indian rebels, which came to be known as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’. Meerut was the fulcrum of this rebellion, started by Mangal Pandey.
  • As a result of this failed rebellion a redivision of territories took place. Delhi got shifted to the Punjab province, Ajmer-Marwar region was incorporated into Rajputana and the kingdom of Oudh wrested earlier was incorporated in the NWP of Agra, thus it was again renamed as United Provinces of Agra and Oudh in 1902.
  • In 1902 the capital was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow and in 1938 the name was shortened as United Provinces and ultimately in 1950 it was given its present name-'Uttar Pradesh'.
  • Prominent national leaders: Motilal Nehru, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Motilal’s son Jawaharlal Nehru, and Purushottam Das Tandon.
  • Prominent educational institutions established in the British Era: Benaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University and the Darul Uloom Deoband.
  • Prominent movements: The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, Ballia district established independent administration under Chittu Pandey during the Quit India movement (Baghi Ballia), became a centre of Muslim League politics, Gandhi's Non-Cooperation movement gained momentum in U.P.
  • Development works undertaken during this period: canals, railways, and other means of communication.

U.P. in post-Independence years:

  • Owing to its historical importance, U.P. has always maintained a constant influential presence in Indian subcontinent.
  • Since independence political happenings in the state have received quite a popular handling,as the power keeps shifting in the hands of BJP, SP and BSP.
  • Post independence, after a two decade long rule of Indian National Congress came to an end Bhartiya Janta Dal bagged the governance of U.P. under the leadership of Ram Manohar Lohiya.
  • The BKD government came down after the imposition of president rule in 1969.
  • Following the emergency of 1975, INC lost its support base in Uttar Pradesh and Janata Party came in the rule for the first time in 1977.
  • Since then except for two terms in 1980 and 1985 INC has never been able to form a government in the state.
  • BJP came into power in 1991 and formed subsequent governments independently and in coalition.
  • But due to large scale controversies sprouting out of Ram mandir issue BJP also lost its support base in the state of U.P., paving way for SP and BSP to remain in power until recently when in 2017 BJP again surged to power with Yogi Adityanath as its Chief ministerial candidate.
  • U.P. has provided us with several personalities of import in every field.
  • Prime ministers from the state: Jawaharlal Nehru; Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi; and Atal Bihari Vajpayee of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
  • Political leaders: Acharya Narendra Dev, one of the founders of the Praja Socialist Party, and Mulayam Singh Yadav, the founder and longtime leader of the Samajwadi (Socialist) Party (SP).
  • Key events: Formation of Uttarakhand in 2000 due to discontent among people living in the Himalayan regions regarding the poor and ineffective governance, 1992 Babri Masjid-Ram mandir dispute of Ayodhya.
  • Babri Masjid-Ram Mandir Dispute: A 3-Judge Bench was setup in the Allahabad High Court in 2002 to look into the matter of Babri-Masjid demolition case. In the year 1992 a group going by the name of Karsewaks took it upon themselves to demolish the Babri Masjid situated in Ayodhya, alleging that it was built on the land which supported a Ram Temple before.The hearing in this case was was done and High Court decided to allot 2.75 Acre land to erect a Ram Mandir to two groups, Nirmohi Akhara and Ram Lalla, and to allocate the remaining land to Sunni Waqf board. Senior leaders like Uma Bharati, Lal Krishna Advani, and Murli Manohar Joshi have been charged of having a hand in the demolition, but they pleaded not guilty. Both Hindus and Muslims are at an impasse in the case and this is leading to communal tensions.


Economic Zones: Western region, Central Region, Eastern region and Bundelkhand

Major Sector in the state: Agriculture

Other sectors of income:

  • Service sector, Industrial & manufacturing sector
  • Tourism, computer hardware and software, information technology products and handicraft are other major contributors to the state’s economy.
  • U.P. is the second largest economy in India after Maharashtra.


The economy of Uttar Pradesh entirely depends on agriculture. Several important steps like extension of irrigation facilities, Arrangement for timely supply of fertilizers, pesticides and high yielding seeds promoting high yielding varieties of use of seeds and continuous consultancy services of expects on agricultural matters have been taken.

Principal crops: Rice, wheat, sugarcane

Other crops: Wheat, rice, maize, millet, and pulses, such as beans, peas, oilseeds, potatoes, lentils

Principal Fruits: Mango, Guava

Food Grain Production (2016-2017): 47,773.4 thousand tonnes

  • U.P. is the largest producer of food grains and vegetables in India.

Share in total food grain output 2016-2017: 17.83%

Net sowing area: 16564 hectare



Food grains


Pulse seeds


oil seeds






Production (In thousand metric ton)

Crop Loan: A provision of Rs. 200 crore has been made to provide short term crop loan to farmer @3% interest.

  • In 2016-17, a provision of Rs. 1574 crore for new schemes of irrigation and Rs. 745 crore for flood control has been made.

The percentage distribution of net irrigated areas through different sources:



Jute well


Ponds, lakes, well, other water bodies





Rank in India





Economy (GDP)


State Population









The state has diversified and naturally developed industrial activities.

Key Industries: Information technology, agro processing, tourism, mineral-based industries, textiles, handloom and handicrafts, food processing and sports goods,vegetable and animal oils and fats, dairy products, grain mill products, animal feed, carpets and rugs.

Industrial spectrum: Cement, Vegetable Oil, Textiles, Cotton Yarn, Sugar, ,Jute, Locks, Carpet, Brassware, Glassware, Bangles, Marble, Inlay, Food products & beverages, Tobacco, chemicals & chemical products, metal, rubber and plastic products, metal fabrication work including motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers, communication equipment, transport equipment, electrical machinery and apparatus, furniture, non-metallic mineral products, publishing, printing and media, paper and paper products, glassware and leather related products.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) equity (2000 to 2017): US$ 652 million

Milk Production: 27.77 million tonnes

Share in total milk produced in India: 16.83%

  • U.P. is considered one of the major milk producing state in India.

IT and ITes sector: Software, captive business process outsourcing (BPO), electronics, semiconductor industry.

  • U.P. is a fastly emerging IT hub.

Services exhibiting massive growth: Telecommunication, banking, insurance, logistics, transport, health and education

Products exported by the state: Software, electronics, computer hardware, chemicals, stone products, brass work, betel leaves, potato based products, hand printing, leather items, cotton yarn, sarees, silk dress material, black pottery, handicraft items, art products, jewellery.

Major factors driving industrial Growth in U.P.:

  1. Availability of natural resources and raw material
  2. Access to robust infrastructure
  3. Extensive commutation networks
  4. Availability of skilled labour
  5. Provision of large scale investments and incentives offered by the state

Minerals and Heavy Industries

Minerals found in Uttar Pradesh: Limestone, Dolomite, Glass-sand, Marble, Bauxite, Non-plastic Fireclay, Uranium, Barytes & Andalusite, Sand-stone, Pebbles, Reh, Salt punter, Maurang sand, Diaspore, Sulphur, Magnesite, Pyrophyllite, Silica sand.

  • In the early days Copper, Lead, Iron ore and Placer Gold have been mined on a small scale in parts of Himalayas, Bundelkhand and South-Eastern districts.
  • In addition Vindhyan Sand Stone as building and Mill Stone were also mined in the districts of Agra, Allahabad and Mirzapur.
  • Prior to 1900, the Copper ores were mined on a small scale in erstwhile Garhwal, however, the development of Modern Technology and decline in the prices also lead to the decline of small scale Mining.
  • Mining activity during 1920 and 1930 further declined due to various reasons.
  • The Geologists have been examining the ground for search of both Industrial and Metallic Mineral deposits which could be developed in relation to present day Technology and Economics.

Sl. No.





Singrauli coalfields, Sonbhadra


Diaspore & pyrophyllite

Hamirpur, Jhansi, Lalitpur and Mahoba


silica sand



Glass sand Mineral

Shankargarh, Lohargarh,Bargarh


Andalusite & Calcite




Banda, Varanasi, Lalitpur


China clay & Dolomite

Banda, Sonbhadra






Banda, Hamirpur, Lalitpur & Mahoba





Fireclay, limestone, potash & sillimanite



iron ore (hematite) and rock phosphate



Installed power generation capacity: 24,917 megawatt (MW)(April 2018)

Important power plants in the state

Sl. No.




Narora Atomic Power Station-Bulandshahr




Thermal Coal Based



Thermal Coal Based


NTPC-Feroze Gandhi, Unchahar

Thermal Coal Based



Thermal Coal Based


  • As Uttar Pradesh harbours one of the most beautiful wonders of the world-Taj Mahal, that’s why it’s the recipient of a high number of tourist footfalls every year.
  • Every year 2 million domestic and foreign tourists visit U.P. on an average.
  • U.P. government has devised a new tourism policy to invite Rs5000 Cr worth of investments

Budget allocated for religious tourism (2018-19): Rs 1240 Cr

  • U.P. is a renowned destination for religious tourism or pilgrimage.

Important Archaeological/Tourism Monuments and Sites:

Sl. No.

Temple/Archeological Monument/Site

Located in/near


Taj Mahal



Kashi Vishwanath Temple



Tulsi Manas Temple



Hanuman Setu Temple



Sri Radha Govinda Temple



Ram Janmabhoomi



Triveni Sangam



Sankat Mochan



Sarnath Temple



Manikarnika Ghat



Tomb of Akbar the Great



Agra Fort



Banke Bihari Temple



Bharat Mata Mandir



Bada Imambara



Jhansi Fort



Jama Mosque



Chunar Fort






Victoria Memorial



Dhamek Stupa



Fatehpur Sikri



Krishna Janmabhoomi



  • Under the Constitution of India, Uttar Pradesh has a Governor and a bicameral Legislature.
  • The Lower House is called Vidhan Sahha having 404 members, out of which 403 are elected and 1 nominated and the Upper House, Vidhan Parishad having 100 members.
  • The State has also a High Court at Allahabad with its bench at Lucknow.
  • The executive power of the State is vested in the Governor as it is exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him according to the constitutional provisions.

Council of Ministers

  • All the executive business of the State is carried on in the name of the Governor.
  • The Chief Minister has to inform the Governor about all the decisions taken by the Council of Ministers in regard to administration as also require the Council of Ministers to reconsider any matter on which a unilateral decision has been taken by a minister.
  • The Governor has been made a component part of the Legislature under Article 168 of the Constitution and has been assigned certain functions. He summons both or either of the Houses of Legislature and also prorogues them.
  • He is also empowered to suspend or dissolve the Vidhan Sabha.

Vidhan Sabha

  • The Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha has a total of 404 members including one Anglo-Indian member who is norminated by the Governor.
  • According to the recommendation of the Delimitation Commission, which is appointed after every Census, the State had been divided into 403 Vidhan Sabha Constituencies.
  • The Term of the Vidhan Sabha is five years unless dissolved earlier. The election for it is held on the principle of 'one adult one vote'
  • The Language of the House is Hindi in Devanagri script.

House Committees

  • Uttar Pradesh is the first State to accept the Principle that the Chairman of Public Accounts Committee should be from the Opposition. The State has been following this convention since 1948, While it was adopted by the Lok Sabha only after 1967.
  • Uttar Pradesh has also the distinction of setting up of a Parliamentary Studies Committee a few years ago to study parliamentary affairs and give its suggestions. The committee has done important work regarding privileges of members, ordinance-issuing power of the Governor, inclusion of Vidhan Parishad members in financial and other committees and working of the committee itself.
  • Another committee was set up to oversee the welfare of Scheduled Castes/Tribes and Denotified Tribes. In addition, there are 27 Standing Committees to advise the ministers.

Vidhan Parishad

  • The State has a bi-cameral Legislature since 1937.
  • The Upper House or the Vidhan Parishad is a permanent House.
  • Members are elected or nominated for six years and one-sixth of them retire every second year.
  • It has 108 members, 12 of whom are nominated by the Governor.Thirty-nine members are elected each by the Vidhan Sabha and Local bodies and nine each by the teachers and graduates.

The Secretariat

  • Most departments of the Secretariat have heads of departments and heads of offices under their administrative control, who function as the executive authorities of the Government.
  • All the government orders are issued in the name of the Governor but are signed by the Secretary or officers under him down to the rank of Under Secretary.
  • The work of Government is conducted in Hindi, in Devanagri script. T
  • The Principal Secretaries, Secretaries, Special Secretaries, Joint Secretaries, Deputy Secretaries and Under-Secretaries are appointed either from the Central or State Administrative Services.
  • The work of the Secretariat can be divided broadly into the following categories:- (i) Personnel Administration (ii) Financial Administration (iii) Judicial and Legislative Affairs (iv) Law and Order (v) Levy and Collection of Taxes (vi) Economic Development and Conservation of Sources of State's Wealth (viii) Social Services (viii) Public Utility Services (ix) General Administration.

District and Divisional Administration

  • After the Secretariat and Heads of Departments, the Divisional Commissioner occupies an important place.
  • He is fully responsible for law and order, revenue, administration and other matters pertaining to his division. He has to exercise supervision over the district officers, local bodies and planning and development works.
  • Each division consists of certain districts. Each district is under the admistrative charge of a district officer who is also called the District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner. The District Officer is fully responsible for the law and order in his district and has extensive administrative, police and revenue powers.

The Judiciary

  • The High Court is the apex court in the State in respect of civil and criminal cases.
  • The Board of Revenue is the highest court in respect of revenue cases.
  • Under Article 277 of the Constitution, the High Court has been given the power of superintendence over all others courts and tribunals.
  • The High Court is a Court of records which means that its work and proceedings serve as perpetual evidence. Its records are of such high authority that their content cannot be challenged in any lower court.
  • As a court of record, it has also the power to punish persons guilty of its contempt.
  • The Chief Justice of the High Court is appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India and the Governor of the State.
  • Other Judges are appointed by him on the advice of the Chief Justice.


Folk Dances

Major Dance forms of the state: 1. Swang, 2. Charkula Dance, 3. Raslila, 4. Nautanki, 5. Ahir Dance.

  • Uttar Pradesh is the place where Kathak, one of the six foremost classical dances of India, flourished. The word Katha, from which the name is derived, means story. It originated in northern India, during the 7th century A.D. Kathak has very intricate and complex movements of hands and feet along with facial expressions.
  • The footwork is accompanied by the music of various percussion instruments such as tabla and pakhawaj, which are native to north India.
  • Other dance forms of Uttar Pradesh are largely folk traditions expressed in theatrical forms, such as:-
  • Ramlila is one such art form dealing with the life of Lord Rama and includes dance and theatre performance.
  • Braj Raslila is associated with the life of the lover-God, Lord Krishna.
  • Charkula is another folk dance of the state. The dance of Charkula involves a female dancer balancing a column of lighted deepaks over her head while dancing.
  • Rasiya describes the love of Radha and Shri Krishna. Charkula and Rasiya are native arts of the Braj region of the state.


  • Uttar Pradesh had been the land of the great sages and hermits and the singing of ancient hymns and mantras laid the basic tradition of music, which has blossomed into a musical tradition. The medieval age saw the emergence of two distinct strands of music. One was the court music that found patronage in the Courts like Agra, Fatehpur-Sikri, Lucknow, Jaunpur, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Banda and Datiya. The second was the religious tradition emerging from the Bhakti Cult rooted and flowered in centres like Mathura, Vrindavan and Ayodhya. Rulers and musicians from Uttar Pradesh contributed to the prosperity of Hindustani music.
  • Artistes of the stature of the shehnai maestro Ustad Bismillah Khan, Kathak wizard Birju Maharaj, tabla maestro Kishan Maharaj, the legendary Baba Allauddin Khan and his disciples Pt. Ravi Shankar and Ustad Vilayat Khan; ghazal singers Begum Akhtar, Rasoolan Bai, Girija Devi and many more have lived and practised their art here.


Prominent tribes in the state: 1. Agariya, 2. Aheria, 3. Baiga Tribe, 4. Bind Tribe, 5. Patari.

  • Agariya Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: One of the Scheduled Tribes of Uttar Pradesh is the Agariya people. During the years of the British rule, the ones who lived in and around Mirzapur were involved in the mining of iron.
  • Aheria Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: An ethnic community of people in India, Aheria is mainly found in the state of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. Before the 1920s, they were mainly hunters but later on they became farmers.
  • Baiga Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: Commonly found in Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, the Baiga tribe also has some sub castes like Nahar, Bijhwar, Narotia, Kadh Bhaina, Rai Bhaina, Bharotia etc.
  • This tribe practices 'shifting cultivation' in the forest. As they never plough the same patch of earth again and again, they lead a semi-nomadic life. Baiga have tattooing as an integral part of their lifestyle. They are the successors of the Dravidians.
  • Beldar Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: A part of the Scheduled Castes, Beldar are originally from Uttar Pradesh. The Kewat community is claimed to be their ancestors and have a history of moving from one place to another.
  • Bind Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: The Bind tribe is found in Uttar Pradesh and belongs to the Other Backward Caste. This community claims that they belong to the Simha community and are different from the other castes including the Bin in Bihar. They have originated from the Vindhya Hills located in the central part of India. Buksa Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: Living mainly in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, the Buksa people are indigenous people who have been granted the status of the Scheduled Tribes.
  • Chero Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: Found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the North India, the Chero is a scheduled caste, a community that claims to have been originally the Chandravanshi Rajputs. They belong to one of the tribal communities that are resident of the southeastern parts of Uttar Pradesh like the Kol and Bhar. They ruled northern parts of Bihar until the Rajputs disposed them off. Now, they can be found in the areas that extend from Muzaffarpur to Allahabad. They are sub-divided into Chaudhary and Mahto.
  • Ghasia Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: The Ghasia are one of the many tribal communities from Sonbhadra and Mirzapur in the southern parts of Uttar Pradesh. According to their claims, at some point of time, they were the rulers but since they lost their rulings, they started cultivation.
  • Kol Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: Mainly found in the Allahabad, Varanasi, Banda and Mirzapur districts, the Kol is the largest tribe in Uttar Pradesh. As stated in the history, this community migrated from the central parts of India almost 5 centuries ago. They are one of the Scheduled Castes available in UP.
  • Korwa Tribe of Uttar Pradesh: The Korwas, a Scheduled Tribe found in the Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh is economically and socially poor community. They are isolated tribes and most of them are hunter gatherers.


  • Festivals of almost all the religions are celebrated in U.P.
  • Various communities celebrate as many as 40 festivals with gaiety and complete communal harmony.
  • Sheetla Ashtami, Raksha Bandhan, Vaishakhi Purnima, Ganga Dashahara, Naag Panchami, Krishna Janmashtami, Ram Navami, Ganesha Chaturthi, Vijaya Dashmi, Deepawali, Kartik Purnima, Makar Sankranti, Vasant Panchami, Shivaratri and Holi are the main festivals of the Hindus.
  • Eid, Muharram, Bakrid, Barawafat and Shab-e-Barat are the major Muslim festivals.
  • New Year's Day, Good-Friday, Easter and Christmas are the prominent festivals of the Christians.
  • Buddha Purnima for Buddhists, Mahavir Jayanti for Jains, the birthday of Guru Nanak, Martyr's day of Guru Teg Bahadur and Vaishakhi are the famous festivals of the people of Sikh faith.
  • About 2,250 fairs are held every year in Uttar Pradesh.
  • The largest number of fairs are held in Mathura (86), followed by Kanpur and Hamirpur (79), Jhansi (78), Agra (72), and Fatehpur (70).
  • More than 2,230 festivals are held annually.
  • Some are organized at several places simultaneously while others have only local importance. Festivals and feasts are linked with the golden harvest - the sensuous spring, the reverence for mythology, religion or in honor of the past great men.
  • These are zestfully celebrated with song, dance, and merriment; others with solemnity, fervor, fast, or feast. These fairs and festivals help the people keep the culture vibrant and promote artistic activities.

Sl. No.

Festival Name




'Festival of lights,' Diwali is a five-day Hindu celebration in the state


Maha Kumbh Mela

Largest Hindu pilgrimage where millions of people gather together to take a spiritual bathe in a sacred river, popularly known as Sangam.

It is held at every third year at one of the four places namely Haridwar, Allahabad, Nashik and Ujjain.


Rama Navami

Famous Hindu festival which marks the birth of Lord Rama


Maha Shivaratri

Celebrated in the respect of Lord Shiva every year






Eid or Eid-ul-Fitr is a main religious festival of Muslims



Vijayadashami also known as Dussehra, is a most popular Hindu festival that celebrates the victory of Lord Rama over Ravana and Goddess Durga over devil Mahishasura.


Yoga Festival

The yoga Festival held at Varanasi and Allahabad.

Sobriquets/Special Titles bestowed on Cities

Sl. No.


Nick Name



City of Taj



Sangam City, Abode of God



Grasse of the East, Perfume Capital of India, Harsh Vardhan City



Leather City of the World, Manchester of the East



City of Nawabs, Shiraz-e-Hind, Constantinople of the East



Spiritual Capital of India, Oldest city in the world

Painting & Rock Painting

  • The tradition of painting in Uttar Pradesh has been going on since prehistoric times. The cave paintings of Sonbhadra and Chitrakoot depict scenes of hunting, war, festivals, dances, romantic life and animals. The golden period of painting in UP was the Mughal Era. The art of painting attained its peak during the reign of Jahangir. The Mughal style of painting remains one of the greatest achievements of Asian culture and is unique in its concept, presentation and style.
  • The art of painting reached the epitome of perfection in the area of Bundelkhand when the King of Orchha reconstructed the temple of Keshav Dev in Mathura. The paintings of Mathura, Gokul, Vrindavan and Govardhan depict the scenes from the life of Lord Krishna. Another major pre-modern painting tradition of UP is known as the Garhwal School which was patronized by the Kings of Garhwal.


Major Handicrafts: Chikan work, Embroidery, Furniture, Clay toys, Carpet Weaving, Silk, Bangles, Brassware work.

  • One of the important crafts of Uttar Pradesh is Chikankari, which entails delicate and traditional hand embroidery. This form of handicrafts is mainly practiced in Lucknow. It is done on fabrics like chiffon, muslin, organza, organdy and silk. Chikan saris and Kurtas which are the perfect summer wear.
  • Zardozi embroidery is another unique art where the embroidery is done in three dimensions. Zari works of Varanasi are famous around the world.
  • Pottery and exquisite metal ware products are also created on a large scale in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Carpet weaving is also an important cultural expression of Uttar Pradesh. The state caters to 90 percent of the country's carpets. The carpet weaving centers primarily located in the state are around Mirzapur, Khamaria and Bhadohi.

Metal Ware

  • Uttar Pradesh is the largest Brass and Copper producing state in India. In domestic-ware each of the 'lotas' (small water-pots) is known by the name of its origin, like Etawah, Banaras, Sitapur, etc. The ritual articles are largely in copper. Moradabad in U.P. is famous for its art metalwork and known for its coloured enamelling and intricate engravings.


  • Glazed pottery with white background and blue and green patterns is developed in Khurja, Chunar and Rampur in Uttar Pradesh. U.P. produces some of the finest Chunar black clay pottery. This is inlaid with silver paint in intricate designs. The art that is practiced in Nizamabad, has high gloss and lustre derived from a powder called kabiz made from the mud of rice fields. Khurja is also well known for its cheap and tough tableware.


  • Gorakhpur has villages where clay figures of animals are created and is famous for its ornately decorated terracotta horse too. The potter creates the basic form by placing separate pieces of mud on the wheel and then carving them.


  • Lucknow is well known for its jewellery and enamel work. Exquisite silverware with patterns of hunting scenes, snakes and roses are very popular. The Bidri and Zarbuland silver works of Lucknow have fine embroidery on excellent pieces of huqqa farshi, jewel boxes, trays, bowls, cufflinks, cigarette holders, etc. Renowned ivory and bone carvings with motifs of flowers, leaves, creepers, trees, birds and animals are widely produced in Lucknow. The master craftsmen create intricate items like knives, lampshades, shirt pins and small toys.


  • 'Attars' or perfumes are also produced in Lucknow since 19th century. The Lucknow perfumers experimented and succeeded in making attar with delicate and lasting fragrances those are made from various aromatic herbs, spices, sandal oil, musk, essence of flowers, and leaves. The famous Lucknow fragrances used in perfumes are khus, keora, chameli, zafran and agar.

Farming is the primary occupation of three-quarters of the working population. The soils are fertile and there is good rainfall in nearly all the regions. Irrigation facilities bring water to about one-third of the cropped area. , are the major food crops. Uttar Pradesh is one of the country's major producers of sugarcane. Cotton, oilseeds, jute, potatoes, and tobacco are other important cash crops.Many peasants have farms that are too small for efficient agriculture. The main problem is the pressure of population on land sources.As a part of national and state projects for sericulture (the production of silk fibre), large-scale planting of mulberry trees is under way across the state. Mulberry trees provide food for the caterpillars of the silkworm moth.





Indian Institute Of Technology, Kanpur


Institute of National Importance

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS)


Institute under state legislature act

Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad


Institute of National Importance

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology


Institute of National Importance

National Institute of Fashion Technology

Rae Bareilly

Institute of National Importance

National Institute of pharmaceutical education and research

Rae Bareilly

Institute of National Importance

Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology

Jais, Noida

Institute of National Importance

Indian Institute of Technology, Varanasi


Institute of National Importance

Indian Institute of Technoloy (BHU), Varanasi


Institute of National Importance

Research Institutions



Central Drug Research Institute


Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants


Birbal Sahani Institute of Palaebotany


Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute


Indian Institute of Pulses Research


Industrial Toxicology Research Centre


National Botanical Research Institute


National Sugar Institute


Uttar Pradesh Textile technology Institute


Sports Arena/Stadium

Sl. No.


Purported Sport



Green Park Stadium




Faizabad Sports Complex




Buddh International Circuit

Formula One Indian Grand Prix

Greater Noida


Dhyan Chand Astroturf Stadium




  • The history of Uttar Pradesh is recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desh or Madhya Desha. Many great sages of the Vedic times like Bhardwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkya, Vashishtha, Vishwamitra and Valmiki flourished in this state. Several sacred books of the Aryans were also composed here. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh. In the Sixth Century BC Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new religions- Jainism and Buddhism. It was at Sarnath that Buddha preached his first sermon and laid the foundations of his order. Several centres in Uttar Pradesh like Ayodhya, Prayag, Varanasi and Mathura became reputed centres of learning.
  • In the medieval period Uttar Pradesh passed under Muslim rule Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Agra. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humayun and led the way to new synthesis of Hindu and Islamic cultures. Ramananda and his Muslim disciple Kabir, Tulsidas, Surdas and many other intellectuals contributed to the growth of Hindi and other languages.
  • During the British rule in India, there were certain pockets in Uttar Pradesh that were governed by the English equity and common law. In 1773, the Mughal Emperor transferred the districts of Banaras and Ghazipur to the East India Company. The East India Company acquired the area of modern day Uttar Pradesh over a period of time. The territories occupied from the nawabs, the Scindias of Gwalior and the Gurkhas were initially placed within the Bengal Presidency.


List of Schemes Running in the state

  1. Interest Waiver scheme for farmer loans from cooperative banks
  2. Old Age pension scheme-2018 & Widow pension scheme 2018
  3. One District One Product Scheme 2018
  4. UP Govt. Anti Corruption & Anti Graft Scheme
  5. Free Bus Ride Scheme in UP for BPL Families
  6. Free Education Scheme Upto Class 12th
  7. UP Ration Card Scheme
  8. Uttar Pradesh Berojgari Bhatta Yojana 2018
  9. Kisan Uday Yojana to Provide Pump Sets to Farmers
  10. Uttar Pradesh Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana – Saubhagya Scheme
  11. UP Draft Scheme for Fees Regulation of Private Schools
  12. Pandit Deendayal Gramodyog Rozgar Yojana
  13. NIDHI EIR Yojana in Uttar Pradesh for Engineering Students
  14. Mukhyamantri Free Laptop Scheme
  15. Mukhyamantri Annapurna Bhojnalay Scheme
  16. Ghaziabad Ab Hoga Aur Bhi Roshan
  17. Suryanetra Yojana-Employment via UPNEDA
  18. Worker’s Children Scheme
  19. Bhagya Laxmi Yojana
  20. Mukhyamantri Swarojgar Yojana
  21. UJALA Scheme
  22. UP Viklang Pension Scheme

Schemes Pertaining to Additional Energy Sources

  1. Solar Energy Policy
  2. Solar Rooftop Programme
  3. Programmes Under Grid Connection/State Solar Power Policy
  4. Solar City Program

Schemes for Farmers

  1. Grants on Certified Seeds Schemes
  2. Pest Control/Disease Control Through Different Situation Resources Schemes
  3. Scheme for Promoting The Use of Hybrid Seeds Scheme
  4. Use of Information Technology for The Development of Agriculture Schemes
  5. Trained Agricultural Entrepreneurs Self Help Plan Schemes
  6. Krashi Bhumi Sanrakshan Scheme



  • U.P. is home to world’s largest number of poors.
  • 75% Rural households dependent on Agriculture for their livelihood.
  • Lower castes and women form a big part of the population living below poverty line.
  • Challenges:
    • Generation of opportunities
    • Making the poor aware and conscious of opportunities
    • Protecting the poor and vulnerable
  • Region with high impoverishment: Urban Southern Region (SR), rural Eastern Region (ER), and in both rural and urban areas of Central Region

High Infant Mortality Rate & Poor Children Health

Infant Mortality Rate (2015-16): 64 per thousand live births

  • U.P.’s infant mortality rate is very high in comparison to Infant mortality rate in India, which stood at 41 per thousand live birth in 2015-16.

Severity of Situation:

  1. 46.3% children have stunted growth(low height for age)
  2. 17.9% children come under wasted category(low weight for height)
  3. 40% children are underweight

Reasons for such a high mortality Rate:

  1. Unavailability of specialist doctors.
  2. Lack of Adequate nursing staff
  3. Lowest health workers share in India (19.9%)

Lack of Quality Education and Unfulfilled Educational Goals

Issues: poor learning outcomes, low enrolment in secondary classes, high absenteeism

  • Young children are not able to read or write. In fact many cannot recognize letters & digits.
  • Despite high enrolment in primary classes, the state of education is not enviable in the state.

High Levels of Unemployment

Unemployment in U.P.: 58 per thousand VS Unemployment in India: 37 per thousand

Unemployment in Youth (18 to 29 Age group): 148 per 1000

People migrating for jobs to other states (B/w 2001 & 2011): 5.8 million


  1. Low skill levels
  2. Low educational attainment
  3. Lack of jobs

Steps taken: Government has promised creation of 7 million jobs and Rs 1000 Cr investment in startups in coming 5 years.

Access to Electricity

  • Power Cuts and non-electrification are a grievous issue in the state.

Unelectrified Rural households: 51.8%

  • This condition prevails in U.P. despite having third largest installed coal capacity in India.


  1. Corruption
  2. Red Tape within distribution companies

Sedate Industrial Growth

  • Industrial growth is among the lowest five states in U.P.
  • A lot of units of traditional industries have also shut down in past years.
  • Stands on 20th position amongst 21 states on State Investment potential scale.
  • Cause: Shortage of electricity and vocationally trained people.
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