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Internal Security

National Terrorism Data Fusion & Analysis Centre

  • 05 Feb 2024
  • 8 min read

For Prelims: National Investigation Agency (NIA), National Terrorism Data Fusion & Analysis Centre (NTDFAC), Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS).

For Mains: National Terrorism Data Fusion & Analysis Centre, Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

Source: TH

Why in News?

Recently, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) has developed the National Terrorism Data Fusion & Analysis Centre (NTDFAC), which makes the government collect and compile information on terrorists and their associates from various sources.

  • The NIA has for the first time collected details of all terrorists including those from Indian Mujahideen and Lashkar-e-Taiba as well as Khalistani militant groups.

What is the National Terrorism Data Fusion & Analysis Centre?

  • About:
    • The NTDFAC has been modelled along the lines of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) of the US.
      • The GTD is managed by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), based at the University of Maryland in the United States.
      • The GTD is a publicly accessible database that collects and analyzes data on terrorist incidents globally. It provides detailed information on various aspects of each incident, including the date, location, weapons used, tactics employed, targets, and the number of casualties.
    • It will serve as a centralized database and analysis centre for information related to terrorism and terrorists operating in the country.
      • In 2023, the Ministry of Home Affairs had asked all state police forces and anti-terror agencies to adopt an approach to prevent the formation of new terrorist groups.
  • Key Features:
    • Comprehensive Database: This includes case histories, fingerprints, videos, pictures, and social media profiles, providing a comprehensive overview of individuals involved in terrorist activities.
    • Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS): The NTDFAC incorporates the National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS), which holds over 92 lakh fingerprint records.
      • This allows for the quick and accurate identification of individuals based on fingerprint data.
    • Face Recognition System: It is equipped with a face recognition system, enabling the scanning of pictures of suspects from CCTV footage. This technology aids in the identification and tracking of individuals involved in terrorist activities.
    • Support for State Police Forces: The NTDFAC not only assists NIA officers but also supports state police forces in identifying details of suspects.
      • State police forces can access the centralised server to gather information on terrorists operating in their jurisdictions.

What is the National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS)?

  • About:
    • Conceptualized and managed by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), it is a country-wide searchable database of crime- and criminal-related fingerprints.
    • The web-based application functions as a central information repository by consolidating fingerprint data from all states and Union Territories.
  • Key Features:
    • Web-Based Application: The system operates as a web-based application, allowing law enforcement agencies to access and manage fingerprint data in real-time on a 24x7 basis.
    • Unique Identifier: NAFIS assigns a unique 10-digit National Fingerprint Number (NFN) to each person arrested for a crime.
      • This unique ID can be used for the person’s lifetime, and different crimes registered under different FIRs will be linked to the same NFN.
    • Integration with CCTNS: NAFIS is connected to the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) database at the backend, providing a unique identifier for every arrested person in the CCTNS.
    • Real-Time Data Upload and Retrieval: The system enables law enforcement agencies to upload, trace, and retrieve fingerprint data in real time, enhancing the efficiency of criminal identification processes.
    • Replacement for Previous Systems: NAFIS is the latest iteration in a series of automated fingerprint identification systems in India. It replaces the previous system, FACTS 5.0, which was considered to have "outlived its shelf life."

What is the National Investigation Agency (NIA)?

  • About:
    • The NIA is the Central Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency of India mandated to investigate all the offences affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India. It includes:
      • Friendly relations with foreign states.
      • Against atomic and nuclear facilities.
      • Smuggling of arms, drugs and fake Indian currency and infiltration from across the borders.
      • The offences under the statutory laws enacted to implement international treaties, agreements, conventions and resolutions of the United Nations, its agencies and other international organisations.
    • It was constituted under the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, 2008.
    • The agency is empowered to deal with the investigation of terror related crimes across states without special permission from the states under written proclamation from the Ministry of Home Affairs.
    • Headquarters: New Delhi
  • Origin:
    • In the wake of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack in November 2008, which shocked the entire world, the then United Progressive Alliance government decided to establish the NIA.
  • Jurisdiction:
    • The law under which the agency operates extends to the whole of India and also applies to Indian citizens outside the country.
    • Persons in the service of the government wherever they are posted.
    • Persons on ships and aircraft registered in India wherever they may be.
    • Persons who commit a scheduled offence beyond India against the Indian citizen or affecting the interest of India.

What are Scheduled Offences?

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Question (PYQ)


Q. The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding? (2017)

Q. Analyse the multidimensional challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also discuss measures required to be taken to combat these threats. (2021)

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