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Indian History

Dr B. R. Ambedkar's 129th Birth Anniversary

  • 14 Apr 2020
  • 4 min read

Why in News

Dr. B R Ambedkar’s Birth Anniversary is observed every year on 14th April.

Key Points

  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was born in 1891 in Mhow, Central Province (now Madhya Pradesh).
  • He is known as the Father of the Indian Constitution and was India's first Law Minister.
    • He was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee for the new Constitution.
  • Dr. Ambedkar was a social reformer, jurist, economist, author, polyglot (knowing or using several languages) orator, a scholar and thinker of comparative religions.
  • He led the Mahad Satyagraha in March 1927 against Hindus who were opposing the decision of the Municipal Board.
    • In 1926, Municipal Board of Mahad (Maharashtra) passed an order to throw open the tank to all communities. Earlier, the untouchables were not allowed to use water from the Mahad tank.
  • He participated in all three Round Table Conferences.
  • In 1932 Dr. Ambedkar signed the Poona pact with Mahatma Gandhi, which abandoned the idea of separate electorates for the depressed classes (Communal Award).
    • However, the seats reserved for the depressed classes were increased from 71 to 147 in provincial legislatures and to 18% of the total in the Central Legislature.
  • His ideas before the Hilton Young Commission served as the foundation of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • In 1936, he was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly as a legislator (MLA).
  • He was appointed to the Executive Council of Viceroy as a Labour member in 1942.
  • In 1947, Dr. Ambedkar accepted PM Nehru's invitation to become Minister of Law in the first Cabinet of independent India.
  • He resigned from the cabinet in 1951, over differences on the Hindu Code Bill.
  • He converted to Buddhism. He passed away on 6th December 1956. Chaitya Bhoomi is a memorial to B. R. Ambedkar, located in Mumbai.

Contributions of Dr. Ambedkar

  • Journals: Dr. Ambedkar launched various journals like:
    • Mooknayak (1920)
    • Bahishkrit Bharat (1927)
    • Samatha (1929)
    • Janata (1930)
  • Books:
    • Annihilation of Caste
    • Buddha or Karl Marx
    • The Untouchable: Who are They and Why They Have Become Untouchables
    • Buddha and His Dhamma
    • The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women
  • Organisations:
    • Bahishkrit Hitkarini Sabha (1923)
    • Independent Labor Party (1936)
    • Scheduled Castes Federation (1942)

Panchteerath

  • The Indian Government has set up Panchteerath in the memory of Dr BR Ambedkar.
  • Panchteerath include:
    • Amedbkar’s birthplace in Mhow,
    • The place in London where he stayed while studying in the UK
    • Deeksha Bhoomi in Nagpur, where he took education
    • Mahaparinirvan Sthal in Delhi, and
    • Chaitya Bhoomi in Mumbai

Round Table Conferences

  • First Round Table Conference: It was held in London on Nov. 12, 1930 but the Congress did not participate in it.
    • In March 1931, Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin (Viceroy of India 1926-31) entered into a Pact, called Gandhi-Irwin Pact, by which the Congress called off the Civil Disobedience Movement and agreed to participate in the Round Table Conference.
  • Second Round Table Conference: It was held in London on the 7th of September, 1931.
  • Third Round Table Conference: It was held in London on the 17th of November, 1932 to consider the reports of various sub-committees appointed from time to time. It ultimately led to the passage of Govt. of India Act, 1935.
    • The Congress did not participate as most of the leaders were in jail.
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