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Ozone2Climate Technology Roadshow Post-Kigali Amendment
Jun 01, 2017

In news:

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, along with the UN Environment OzonAction’s Compliance Assistance Programme, organized an “Ozone2Climate” Technology Roadshow, post Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, on the sidelines of the South Asia National Ozone Officers Annual Network Meeting – 2017.

The Technology Roadshow showcased current refrigeration and air conditioning equipment designed to be more energy efficient, hence with a double benefit of saving money for consumers, and with a much lower impact on the environment. 

About Kigali

  • The phase-down of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol has been under negotiation by the Parties since 2009 and the successful agreement on the Kigali Amendment 
  • The amendment will allow the use of ozone-saving Montreal Protocol to phase-out HFCs, a set of 19 gases in hydroflurocarbon family that are used extensively in air-conditioning and refrigerant industry. HFCs are not ozone-depleting but are thousands of times more dangerous than carbon dioxide in causing global warming.



  • Enter into Force: on 1 January 2019, provided that it is ratified by at least 20 Parties to the Montreal Protocol (or 90 days after ratification by the 20th Party, whichever is later)
  • Article 5 : Two Groups

→ The majority of Article 5 Parties.
→ Group 2: Bahrain, India, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

  • Non Article 5: No freeze years (Freeze year is the year in which phase down of HFCs starts.)
  • Production, consumption, imports, exports and emissions as well as consumption baselines of HFCs shall be expressed in carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents.
  Article 5 Group 1 Article 5 Group 2 Non Article 5
BASE LINE 2020,21,22 2024-26 2011, 2012 & 2013
Freeze 2024 2028 No freeze period
Countries Majority of article 5 Bahrain, India, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.  
PHASE DOWN Till 2045 80% Till 2047 85% Till 2036 85%

What is Freezing Year?

  • The 'freezing year' is the year when use of HFCs will peak before being rapidly scaled down and finally phased out altogether.
  • The baseline years are the years for which the average production and consumption quantity of the refrigerant is taken as the upper limit (peak level)
  • Baselines are to be calculated from both HFC and HCFC production/consumption.
  • Trade with Parties that have not ratified the Amendment (“non-Parties”) will be banned from 1 January 2033.
  • Complete elimination of HFCs by the year 2050 is estimated to prevent about 0.5 degree celsius rise in global temperatures by the end of this century. For this reason, the Kigali Amendment, as it is being called, is considered absolutely vital for reaching the Paris Agreement target of keeping global temperature rise to below 2 degree celsius compared to pre-industrial times.
  • The Kigali Agreement or amended Montreal Protocol for HFCs reduction will be binding on countries from 2019. It also has provisions for penalties for non-compliance. Under it, developed countries will also provide enhanced funding support estimated at billions of dollars globally.
  • The Kigali Amendment will enter into force on 1 January 2019, provided that it is ratified by at least 20 parties to the Montreal Protocol. If that condition is not met by that date, the Amendment will become effective on the 90th day following the date of ratification by the 20th party.
  • India has decided to eliminate use of HFC-23, a greenhouse gas (GHG) HFC-23 is a by-product of HCFC-22 (Hydrochloroflurocarbon-22), which is used in industrial refrigeration. It is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) with global warming potential of 14,800 times more than that of CO2.
  • Agreement upholds the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR & RC). It recognizes the development imperatives of high-growth economies like India, and provides a realistic and viable roadmap for the implementation of a phase-out schedule for high global warming potential (GWP) HFCs. 
  • Kigali Amendment include:

→ Innovative and flexible structure;
→ Ambitious phasedown schedule;
→ Incentive for early action;
→ Broad participation;
→ Enforcement and accountability; and
→ Multiple opportunities to increase ambition.

  • Group 1: Article 5 parties not part of Group 2 
  • Group 2: Bahrain, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates .
  • Technology review in 2022 and every five years .
  • Technology review four to five years before 2028 to consider the compliance deferral of two years from the freeze of 2028 of Article 5 Group 2 to address growth in relevant sectors above certain threshold.
  • “Ratification” (or acceptance or approval) is the action taken by a party to an international treaty to confirm that it consents to be bound by the treaty. Ratification of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol by at least 20 parties is required before the Amendment can enter into force.
  • Annex F has been added to the Protocol. This lists the HFCs, separated into two groups:

→ Annex F, Group I: all HFCs (except HFC-23, and HFOs1)
→ Annex F, Group II: HFC-23.


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